Resources for High School Students Interested in Cyber Security
Summer Camps are a great introduction to cyber security.
Online Courses are the next step to growing knowledge and experience, while at the same time learn more about a potential career path.
Hackathons are the playground for testing how far you’ve come.
Many internship programs available to exact academic paths/interest. Generally speaking, cyber security degree seeking students may pursue positions at the CIA in STEM, Clandestine, Analysis, or Enterprise and Support Roles.
Must apply senior year in high school. Rigorous application process includes polygraph, mental health evaluation, financial need, background checks, high academic marks, abstinence from drugs, and more. Successful applicants will be provided a salary as well as have tuition covered up to a certain price. Successful applicants will work at the CIA in summers and continue to work for the CIA after graduation.
Meet the Terabytches: Fergus students prep for cyber security competition
‘We’re like the biggest collective knowledge in a girls’ team,’ Emily Younghans says
The beginning of cloud based music streaming technology starts in 1899.
There is Nothing new under the sun, so if you were born after 1985 this may sound like fossil hunting, however this really happened!
Swing Hostess is a comedy that shows a fictional company named Jukebox Emporium Company using the real technology – serving music from vinyl records through the telephone wire that allowed Jukebox users to hear the requested songs.
Watch Swing Hostess 1944 Comedy
Lots of sexist, nasty comments about “those kind of women”
► 33:38 Jukebox User Request to the operator:
How About the Cook Stove Special?
Yeah, you know Home on the Range. 🙂
► 14:00 The Job Training explains the “File” system
In the beginning of Wired Music technology, you ordered your song to play by telephone. The company service had a central office with operators who loaded disks onto record players. It only served a limited area of office buildings and other businesses. The bandwidth of the premium phone lines was better than a standard phone line (300-3000 Hz), but still not exactly “hi-fi”, but for 78 records it was good enough.
► 34:00 Get the marines! we’ve got a war to wage.
► 34:24 The company phone operator receives a phone call from the Juke Box “User” who has paid .25¢, .10¢, or .05¢ cents to hear the vinyl record spin the requested song through the telephone wire to the customer/user who paid to hear it.
► From vinyl records, cassettes, CDs, Napster files, mp3, mp4, wav etc, ipod players, cell phones to Streaming companies where it is no longer necessary to own the file.
Now we pay $10.00 monthly for all you can eat modern cloud based streamingtech companies when a user can choose from millions of files.
The Shyvers Multiphone, released in 1939 by Kenneth C. Shyvers, was an early model of a coin-operated phonograph (also known as a jukebox). It allowed patrons at restaurants, cafes and bars to play music at their table, and worked through telephone lines. The user inserted the necessary amount of coins, and was connected to a team of all-female disc jockeys in Seattle, who manually put on the selected song on a phonograph, playing the music through the telephone connection. At the height of the product’s popularity, the 8,000 Multiphones were used in various establishments primarily on the west coast. – Shyvers’ 1947 patent for his music box design – Development of Telephone Line Broadcasting Systems -A Centralized Music Library
The Multiphone was a music selection device that operated over telephone lines mostly in Seattle, Tacoma and Olympia, Washington from 1939 to 1959.
It was created by Kenneth and Lois Shyvers of the Seattle, Washington area. This man also invented the pinball machine. The Multiphone is a version of a jukebox wall box.
These units were typically placed on tables, counters or bars. A patron could deposit a coin and speak with a telephone operator standing at a turntable at the Central Music studio, who would then play a selection in the speaker at the bottom of the Multiphone. These units became popular because they had a record range of 170 whereas jukeboxes only had a record range of 20-48.
How it worked
These units sat on tables, counters, and bars. The system required two leased telephone lines, one for the multiphone, one for the loudspeakers on the wall that were connected to the record playing station. First you would select from the 170 choices of tunes, drop the correct amount of dimes in the coin slot at the top of the machine, for your selections. The two lights in the middle of the unit would then light up, and thru one of the leased telephone lines the disc jockey would be alerted and then they would talk direct to you thru the speaker in the top of the unit to find out your choices. You would give the numbered choices, they would then be played, with the sound coming thru the four inch speaker in the bottom of the unit. These units became popular because they had a record range of 170 whereas jukeboxes only had 20-24. The jukebox was remodeled to play 180 45 rpm records and the multiphone could not compete and went out of business in 1959. This unit is buffed cast aluminum and has been rewired to plug in and see the lights work. There is also speaker wire attached to hook up to your unit if so desired. The condition is excellent for its age. All original except the cord, no dents, no rust and no pitting. … Empire State Building Shyvers Jukebox Selector Pic
played an important role in the evolution of the jukebox, an invention that grew to become a staple of its time and is still often used in cafes and restaurants to recreate the temporality of the mid 20th century. The first recorded coin operated phonograph was presented in 1889, in a public demonstration at the Palais Royal Restaurant in San Francisco on November 23, 1889.
Louis T. Glass, the operator of this initial model, is credited as “the father of the concept.” Before delving into the phonograph world, Glass worked as a telegraph operator at Western Union, but then left the company with the advent of the telephone, investing in various telephone companies in Oakland and San Francisco. He eventually became the general manager of the Pacific States Telephone and Telegraph Co. After his successful investments, he then partnered with businessman William S. Arnold to further develop the coin-operated phonograph.
Though Glass is considered to be the “father” of the jukebox, he and Arnold only filed a patent for the “Coin Actuated Attachment for Phonographs,” not a completely functional coin-operated phonograph in 1889.
The people of the 1930s and 1940s had coin-operated music players.
The Multiphone and jukeboxes created a new “social practice” of listening to the same music together as media scholar Jose van Dijck says in his article
“Record and Hold: Popular Music between personal and Collective memory.”
According to Dijck, a listener’s memory of music cannot be removed from the context in which it was experienced. For the people during the age of the Multiphone and jukeboxes, the conversations at bars and diners about selecting a song to play made a special place in listeners’ minds. More importantly, this very practice of going to a public place to listen to music is the effect of the technology’s power to create new rituals and thinking as media scholar, Marshall McLuhan discusses in his pivotal work, “The Medium Is The Message.”
2019 The Music Modernization Act passes
Copyright Royalty Board (CRB) ruled to increase royalty payments to songwriters and music publishers from music streaming companies by nearly 44 percent, the biggest rate increase granted in CRB history. These rates will go into effect for interactive streaming and limited download services like Amazon, Apple, Google, and Spotify for the years 2018-2022, and will transform how songwriters are paid by these interactive streaming services.
This was a hearing pitting songwriters and music publishers against five technology companies, including three of the largest companies in the world (Apple, Amazon and Google), which sought to reduce the already low rate of royalties that they pay to songwriters for the use of their music on their streaming services. [monopolies vs. antitrust law]
Even though the songwriters were looking for a per-stream rate, that they did not get, the digital services were fighting to reduce rates, so it is still a victory for them. Streamlined rate terms replace calculations with a simplified formula based on the “greater of” concept. This, under previous conditions, may have involved dozens of computations involving different offerings has been reduced to two variables. Originally, songwriters asked the CRB to grant the greater of 15 cents per 100 streams or $1.06 per user per month, but they did gain ground. Over the last decade, since the beginning of music streaming, writer royalties had been strictly based on a percentage of each streaming service’s revenue, putting them at the mercy of subjective corporate decision-making.
► Broadcasts are considered a public performance, and garner a higher performance license rate. For instance, Rodney Jerkins illustrated the discrepancy in September at the Recording Academy’s District Advocacy Day in Los Angeles by sharing an accounting statement for “As Long As You Love Me,” a top 10 hit for Justin Bieber in 2012. By 2013, Jerkins’ stake in the song generated $146,000 in performance royalties, while streaming revenue from the same period garnered $278 for 38 million Pandora plays and $218 for 34 million YouTube streams.
1) For the next five years (from 2018 – 2022) the per-stream royalty rate for mechanical royalties will increase incrementally from the current 10.5% of Gross revenue to 15.1% of Gross revenue. For example, in the current model, if a music service made $100 in Gross Revenue, then 10.5% of $100 is the pot of money being paid for all the compositions, an amount of $10.50. If there are 100 streams in that one month, the service divides $10.50 by 100 streams to get a per stream rate of $0.105 per stream Under the new model, by 2022, the 10.5% will increase to 15.1%. Doing the same calculation means each stream is now worth $0.151 per stream, an increase of about 40%.
2) If the music services pay the royalties late, they will be charged a late fee.
3) If a record label negotiates a higher rate with Spotify for the recording (as there is no government regulation or rate for recordings), then the royalty rate for the composition can also increase, but with a limit. For example, if a record label gets 70% of Gross Revenue, then the amount being paid for the composition could theoretically increase to above 15.1%.
HOW LONG HAS THIS BEEN GOING ON?
The Telephone Line Music Systems were an interesting but short-lived feature in the history of the jukebox.
► 2019 The CRB mandated 15.1% rate, phasing in over the next five years, is one of the highest rates in the world and is now a rate that must be met under the law.
2019 ARSC CONFERENCE The Outreach Committee of the Association for Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC)
53rd annual ARSC Conference, May 8-11, 2019, in Portland, Oregon.
The conference programs will take place at the Benson Hotel, an historic hotel located within walking distance of shopping, dining, and entertainment in the Pearl District, Pioneer Square, and downtown Portland. It is within striking distance of several of the city’s many record stores and Powell’s City of Books. Museums include the Portland Art Museum, Oregon Historical Society, and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry.
The pre-conference workshop, “All Things Digital: Digital Audio Workstation Basics,” will be held on May 8, 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m., at the Crystal Ballroom, in the Benson Hotel.
A block of rooms has been reserved at special rates for ARSC conference attendees. ARSC’s contracted dates extend from May 7-11. Additionally, the group rate will be honored three days before and three days after, based on availability. The deadline for reservations at the group rate is April 12. After that date, reservations will be accepted on a space available basis at the prevailing rate.
Register early and save! In order to receive the early registration discount, you must register for the conference by April 19. Registration options are available for members and non-members. A special fee waiver program is available for student members. Online registration is now available at:
ARSC is dedicated to the preservation and study of sound recordings — in all genres of music and speech, in all formats, and from all periods. Reflecting this broad mission, the upcoming conference offers talks and sessions that will appeal to both professionals and collectors.
Presenters include representatives from archives across North America and Europe, as well as record collectors, dealers, audio engineers and producers, academics, historians, and musicians.
This year’s plenary sessions are:
► The Music Modernization Act and You
Discogs — Collaboration and Crowdsourcing in the 21st Century
Presentations and session topics include:
The Fabulous Wailers and the Founding of the Northwest Rock ’n’ Roll Sound
Phil Moore: Portland’s Forgotten Groomer of the Stars and Musical Genius
Portland’s Native Son Mel Blanc: “Wascally Wabbit” Making “Wecords” 🙂
Recent Developments in Audio Retrieval via Optical Methods
Discography, Then and Now
Recent Developments in the Preservation of Wire Recordings, Magnabelts, and Dictabelts
The First Black-Owned Recording Ventures Reissued: Black Swans
Jack Penewell: The Paramount Test Pressings and Private Recordings of the Inventor of the Twin-Six Guitar
Lacquers: Playback and Content
How to Leverage Open Mass Digitization Audio Projects
A Century of Concert Spiritual Recordings: The Pioneers
The First Days of Disco
Preserving NBC Radio Coverage of the Founding of the United Nations
Media Preservation and Digitization Principles and Practices
Portland’s DIY Scene: The Punk Underground, and Rock and Roll
Mahalia Jackson’s Apollo Recordings
How Archiving Challenges of the Past Can Be Used to Shape Future Approaches
Laurel and Hardy on the Radio: Rare and Well Done
Bob Fass and Radio Unnameable: Saving NYC’s Radical Radio History
Surveying Archival Yiddish Audio Collections: A Treasure of Yiddish Songs and Stories
Where the Music Matters: KEXP Audio Archives Digitization
Inventing the Recording in 1900 Spain: The Era of the Gabinetes Fonográficos
► Thursday evening “Ask the Technical Committee”
► Friday evening open to the general public “Collectors’ Roundtable” Friday evening, join Mark Cantor for the music-on-film event, “Music is Where You Find It.” Most fans of music on film are well aware of the riches to be found within feature films, short subjects, SOUNDIES, and television broadcasts. But popular music — jazz, blues, country, ethnic, and just plain “pop” — can be found in many other film genres. In this session, we will explore some of the other sources — often neglected when music on film is discussed — where great performances can be found: fund raising films, industrial shorts, television commercials, raw newsreel footage, experimental and independent films, propaganda pieces, animated cartoons, and home movies. This program is drawn from the Celluloid Improvisations Music Film Archive, perhaps the largest private collection of musical content where 16mm sound film is the primary source. Join us for a session of rarities that includes appearances from Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington, Helen Humes, Don Shirley, Big Bill Broonzy, “Cannonball” Adderley, Spade Cooley, Eddie Lang, and many more!
► PRE-CONFERENCE WORKSHOP
“All Things Digital: Digital Audio Workstation Basics” is a full-day, hands-on workshop on May 8, at the Benson Hotel. The workshop will give attendees a practical overview of digital audio workstation use for archival applications. It is intended for archivists, collection managers, researchers, students, and anyone who needs to have a working knowledge of digital audio. No previous experience necessary. The workshop is limited to 50 attendees.
OPTIONAL PRE-CONFERENCE TOUR
On May 8, tour Cascade Record Pressing, the first large-production, automated record pressing plant in the Pacific Northwest. It is Oregon’s only vinyl record pressing plant, and produces high-quality records for discerning artists and labels. Learn about all aspects of the record pressing process. Cascade Record Pressing is located about 20 minutes southeast of downtown Portland in Milwaukie. Grace Krause, Project Manager at Cascade Record Pressing, is generously offering a pre-conference tour for a limited number of participants (maximum: 15). Participants meet in the Benson Hotel lobby at 1:15 p.m. for 1:30 p.m. departure for the tour. Transportation will be by shared Uber vehicles. Participants return to hotel at 3:30 p.m. Fee applies (covers transportation).
NEWCOMER ORIENTATION and MENTORING PROGRAM
ARSC invites first-time conference attendees and conference veterans to participate in the Conference Mentoring Program. The program pairs newcomers with long-time members, based on their shared interests. Mentors provide mentees with an orientation to the conference, the association, and its participants in informal meetings over the course of the conference. Only ARSC veterans who are committed to the mentoring program should volunteer.
The conference will conclude on Saturday evening with the annual Awards Banquet. Winners of the 2018 Awards for Excellence and 2019 Lifetime Achievement and Distinguished Service awards will be honored. Finalists for the 2019 Awards for Excellence will be announced.
The Association for Recorded Sound Collections is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the preservation and study of sound recordings — in all genres of music and speech, in all formats, and from all periods. ARSC is unique in bringing together private individuals and institutional professionals — everyone with a serious interest in recorded sound.
@weeklystandard@smarickTrends in governing have eroded the beliefs, norms and processes by which we learn to be accommodating citizens in a pluralistic, deliberative democracy. By manufacturing rights that limit democratic decision-making, centralizing power in Washington far from citizens’…
► January 2019 “Within period of 72 hours, Nixon was inaugurated for second term, LBJ died, Roe v. Wade was decided, Vietnam War settlement was announced–all 46 years ago this month. ~ @BeschlossDC
► “Your regular reminder that Equifax still exists. Everyone who was running the company when 148 million Americans’ data was stolen is still rich, and now their former lawyer is running the office at the Federal Trade Commission that’s supposed to investigate them.”
Axios “The SEC has charged a group of hackers with perpetrating a 2016 breach of its online corporate filing portal making more than $4.1 million in gains from using non-public information about companies.
National Music Publishers’ Association The Copyright Royalty Board ruled that songwriters will get at least a 15.1% share of streaming revenues over the next five years, from a previous 10.5%. The CRB’s decision will require streaming services to pay 15.1 percent of revenue to songwriters and publishers, up from 10.5 percent. The court also issued a ruling regarding a late fee, which will force digital music services to pay songwriters faster, or be subject to a significant penalty. Amazon, Apple, Google, Pandora and Spotify compelled to pay more for the use of music.
Pryor Cashman who represented NMPA and NSAI in the litigation that resulted in the Copyright Royalty Board (CRB) being ruled to increase royalty payments to songwriters and music publishers from music streaming companies.
This was a hearing pitting songwriters and music publishers against five technology companies, including three of the largest companies in the world (Apple, Amazon and Google), which sought to reduce the already low rate of royalties that they pay to songwriters for the use of their music on their streaming services.
From: Dave Bursteindslprime.com
Date: Monday, August 24, 2015
Subject: “5G the Free WiFi Killer” EE Times
The Intel/Verizon/Ericsson model of future wireless has everything controlled by a (carrier-managed) gateway. This report from the Intel Developers’ Forum suggests troubling consequences.
The EE Times article below may be making some assumptions I don’t share, but the underlying point is on target. The author fears a carrier gateway will impede WiFi and more. To be proven.
50-70% of wireless traffic now goes over WiFi, a figure that will increase as faster WiFi routers become common and more home gateways are configured to share unused bandwidth.
That’s an existential threat to phone companies depending on revenue from expanding data usage. They are fighting back in industry fora, including defining LTE-U/LAA as “LTE spectrum owners only” and seeking to dedicate 40 MHz of current WiFi spectrum to the 4 telcos.
Anyone who believes in a “multi-stakeholder” “open” Internet should be worried. In particular, the carriers are bringing this to industry only organizations especially 3GPP (the LTE standard setter), EU 5G groups, the Flex5GWare project and Horizon2020.
We badly need to get a consumer voice in these groups. I’ve raised the issue to Larry Strickling (U.S. Gov) and Kathy Brown (ISOC). vocal supporters of “multi-stakeholder.” The decisions being made in these groups will have more impact on consumers than the limited scope of the ITU/ICANN debate. I’m only one voice and I hope more speak up on the importance of the public interest.
SAN FRANCISCO, Calif.—5G may be not much more than a moniker for what comes after 4G, but Intel clarified its vision recently at a keynote during the Intel Developer Forum 2015 (IDF, San Francisco, Aug.18-20). “Seamless” is the goal and it comes at a price.
The top-line is that Intel hopes to apply all its expertise in computing, networking and wireless communications to make a seamless 5G solution that incorporates distributed intelligence at all levels–from the smartphone to the router to the basestation aggregator to cloudlets, clouds and our fastest supercomputers.
The bottom line is that cellular, WiFi, centimeter- and millimeter wavelength bands must be seamlessly integrated from the user’s point-of-view, according to Aicha Evans, vice president of platform engineering group and general manager of the communications and devices group at Intel.
“5G is not about faster, but about integrating all types of connectivity,” Evans told her keynote attendees at IDF. “The building blocks of 5G are already here today.”
To the carriers this integration will come at a price, since 5G-for-all presents the opportunity to kill free WiFi and instead charge users for every data packet they send or receive, no matter which of the integrated communications technologies is used. At Evans’ keynote she gathered together carriers, service providers and strategists to outline what it is that they expect from 5G, including Alex Choi, chief technical officer (CTO) of SK Telecom (Asia), Bin Shen, Verizon’s vice president of strategy (U.S.) and Paul McNamara, vice president of Ericsson’s corporate strategy group (Europe).
However, before the panel painted the world-changing picture of extraordinary speeds and ultra-low latency–at a price–Intel’s Sandra Rivera, vice president of the data center group and general manager of the Internet of Things (IoT) described the benefits of 5G to the users.
“Intelligence will begin with at the base station,” Rivera asserted to the crowd at IDF. <snip>
Editor, Fast Net News, Net Policy News and DSL Prime
Author with Jennie Bourne DSL (Wiley) and Web Video: Making It Great, Getting It Noticed (Peachpit)
Two years after the first story based on Edward Snowden’s leaks hit the press, the U.S. government enacted the USA FREEDOM Act, ending bulk collection under Section 215. As one of five members of President Obama’s Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technology, I applaud its passage—the biggest pro-privacy change to U.S. intelligence law since the original enactment of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act in 1978.
There is a close fit between the Review Group’s work and the new law as well as multiple significant reform measures the Obama administration has already adopted without legislative change. In this era of partisan gridlock, the U.S. system of government has proved more responsive and resilient than many skeptics had predicted.
Community Statement Presented at Wuzhen Summit
• Nov 20, 2014 5:22 PM PST
By James Seng
China is holding the First Internet Conference in the rivertown of Wuzhen, calling for global Internet interconnectivity and shared governance by all. Founders of China’s top three Internet companies Alibaba, Tencent and Baidu as well as executives from global giants including Apple, Amazon, Google and Facebook all joined the gala.
Chinese President Xi Jinping sent a congratulatory note to the ceremony, hoping countries can jointly build a cyberspace of peace, security, openness and cooperation and an international Internet governance system of multilateralism, democracy and transparency.
Lu Wei, Minister of the Cyberspace Administration of China, hoped the attendees would make plans for Internet interconnectivity and shared governance as well as promote consensus and to make a historical contribution for the Internet.
Many of the global Internet community have been invited to the event. Some of us are here but many are not able to attend due to the short notice. On behalf of the attached signatories, I have presented the following statement at the Wuzhen Summit.
* * *
2014 marks the 20th year anniversary of the era of Internet in China. Today, China has more than 600 million Internet users, accounting for nearly a quarter of the world’s total Internet users. There are four million websites in China and e-commerce annual turnover is 1.6 trillion US dollars. Three of the world’s ten largest Internet companies by market value are based in China.
To quote Minister Lu Wei’s keynote speech at the ICANN opening ceremony in London in June 2014, “The Internet is profoundly changing people’s live, promoting social progress, leading the development of the country, creating the world’s future.”
We, the undersigned, sincerely invite the leaders of the Chinese Internet Community to recognize the following generally accepted Internet principles as a base upon which to build for the Internet in China:
• To preserve Internet as an innovation environment based on open and distributed architecture;
• To develop the Internet as an unified and unfragmented space based on end-to-end open Internet and deployment of IPv6;
• To promote open standards made by rough consensus of the global technical community;
• To uphold the security, stability and resilience of the Internet through strong cooperation among different stakeholders;
• To support future Internet governance building upon multi-stakeholder processes ensuring meaningful and accountable participation.
As Internet availability and use in China expands, not only will China benefit internally, it is poised to be a significant contributor to the Global Internet Community.We look forward both to that occurring and to contributing to it.
The undersigned representing themselves only (in alphabetical order)
Adam Peake, Center for Global Communications, International University of Japan
Akinbo, Adebunmi Adeola, Nigeria Internet Registration Association
Alan Levin, Internet Society of South Africa
Anne-Marie Eklund Löwinder, CISO, .SE
Barry Shein, TheWorld
Carlton Samuels, ICT4D Jamaica
Christian de Larrinaga
Christopher Wilkinson 秦基辅
Prof. David J. Farber, Carnegie Mellon University
Dewayne Hendricks, Dandin Group
Eric Burger 柏尔立
Eric Brunner-William, CORE
Esaki Hiroshi, WIDE Project
Prof. Janna Anderson, Elon University
James Seng, 21Vianet Group, Inc
Prof. Kilnam Chon, KAIST
Marco Davids, SIDN
Michael Roberts, The Darwin Group, Inc., former ICANN CEO
Nick Ashton-Hart, Internet & Digital Ecosystem Alliance (IDEA)
Patrik Fältström, Head of Research and Development, Netnod
Paul Twomey, Argo Pacific Pty Ltd, former ICANN CEO
Paul Vixie, Farsight Security, Inc
Pindar Wong 黃平达
Rod Beckstrom, former ICANN CEO
Salanieta T. Tamanikaiwaimaro
Prof. Shigeki Goto, Waseda University
Prof. Suguru Yamaguchi, Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Tony Hain, Hain Global Consulting, Inc, former IAB
Vint Cerf, VP and Chief Internet Evangelist, Google, Internet Pioneer
The undersigned representing the organization (in alphabetical order)
The South Pacific Computer Society
By James Seng, Vice President. Visit the blog maintained by James Seng here.
Electronic Frontier Foundation Media Release
For Immediate Release: Wednesday, August 20, 2014
Electronic Frontier Foundation firstname.lastname@example.org
+1 415 436-9333 x139
EFF, ACLU Demolish “It’s Just Metadata” Claim in NSA Spying Appeal
Americans Deserve Full Protection of the Fourth Amendment
for their Telephone Records, Groups Argue
Washington, DC – The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) today filed
an amicus brief in Klayman v. Obama, a high-profile lawsuit
that challenges mass surveillance, arguing that Americans’
telephone metadata deserves the highest protection of the
Larry Klayman, conservative activist and founder of
Judicial Watch and Freedom Watch, was among the first
plaintiffs to sue the National Security Agency (NSA) over
the collection of telephone metadata from Verizon customers
that was detailed in documents released by Edward Snowden.
In December 2013, Judge Richard Leon issued a preliminary
ruling that the program was likely unconstitutional, and
the case is currently on appeal before the U.S. Court of
Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
In the new amicus brief in Klayman v. Obama, the EFF and
ACLU lawyers repudiate arguments by U.S. officials that the
records are “just metadata” and therefore not as sensitive
as the contents of phone calls. Using research and new
case law, the civil liberties groups argue that metadata
(such as who individuals called, when they called, and how
long they spoke) can be even more revealing than
conversations when collected en masse.
“Metadata isn’t trivial,” EFF Legal Fellow Andrew Crocker
says. “Collected on a massive scale over a broad time
period, metadata can reveal your political and religious
affiliations, your friends and relationships, even whether
you have a health condition or own guns. This is exactly
the kind of warrantless search the Fourth Amendment was
intended to prevent.”
The brief explains that changes in technology, as well as
the government’s move from targeted to mass surveillance,
mean that the holding of the 1979 Supreme Court case Smith
v. Maryland that the government relies on (often called the
“third-party doctrine”) does not apply. Instead, EFF and
the ACLU point to a series of recent key
decisions–including the Supreme Court decisions in United
States v. Jones in 2012 and Riley v. California in 2014–in
which judges ruled in favor of requiring a warrant for
electronic search and seizure.
“Dragnet surveillance is and has always has been illegal in
the United States,” says ACLU Staff Attorney Alex Abdo.
“Our country’s founders rebelled against overbroad searches
and seizures, and they would be aghast to see the liberties
they fought hard to enshrine into our Constitution
sacrificed in the name of security. As even the president
himself has recognized, we can keep the nation safe without
surrendering our privacy.”
EFF and the ACLU have each litigated numerous First and
Fourth Amendment lawsuits related to NSA surveillance and
together represent Idaho nurse Anna Smith in a similar case
currently on appeal in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals
called Smith v. Obama. The ACLU is a plaintiff in a case
currently pending before the Second Circuit Court of
Appeals, ACLU v. Clapper, to be heard on Sept. 2. EFF has
two cases–Jewel v. NSA and First Unitarian Church of Los
Angeles v. NSA–before the U.S. District Court for Northern
District of California.
For the amicus brief: https://www.eff.org/document/eff-and-aclu-amicus-brief-klayman
For this release: https://www.eff.org/press/releases/eff-aclu-demolish-its-just-metadata-claim-nsa-spying-appeal
Gore also reportedly chided the NSA’s operations, many of which began after he left office, as a “threat to the heart of democracy.”
[… BUT What he revealed in the course of violating important laws included violations of the United States Constitution that were WAY MORE SERIOUS THAN THE CRIMES HE COMMITTED…]