Barr: I don’t know if it would be unprecedented since I’m not really sure what happened in the Watergate situation. I know the report came out 50 years later, I think. – what a smart mouth answer!! who wants to tolerate that!!
And Barr, noted the perfect precedent: Special Prosecutor Leon Jaworski’s cooperation and sharing of confidential grand jury materials with the House Judiciary Committee during the Watergate inquiry.
In that case, which Barr brought up, a “Road Map” for impeachment from the Watergate grand jury itself was released publicly last October after 44 years of being sealed by the court.
However, that Road Map—with all of the secret grand jury material that it included—was sent at the time of the Watergate investigation directly to Congress for consideration.
By naming people such as Herman Cain and Stephen Moore to top jobs, Trump converts the machinery of government to his personal use.
Donald Trump’s administration, however, has transcended cronyism and declared a war on expertise, in which unbiased knowledge is itself somehow politically suspect if it does not accord with President Trump’s beliefs and assertions—and especially if it conflicts with his personal interests. In this administration, complicated issues are not problems to be solved or tasks to be administered for the public good, but threats to be hammered down by alert sycophants. As the Trump economic adviser Peter Navarro once put it: “My function, really, as an economist is to try to provide the underlying analytics that confirm his intuition. And his intuition is always right in these matters.”
The previous US lawyer in control of the Southern District of New York federal prosecutor’s administrative center has instructed Sky Information, in his view, that the administrative center has “successfully” named Donald Trump as an unindicted co-conspirator in a criminal offense.
Preet Bharara used to be regarding a sentencing memo written by way of prosecutors about Michael Cohen, the president’s former non-public legal professional.
“In testy exchange, Rep. Maxine Waters tells Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin, “no other secretary has ever told us the day before that they were going to limit their time.” “You’re ordering me to stay here …. that’s not what I want to do,” Mnuchin says
In testy exchange, Rep. Maxine Waters tells Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin, "no other secretary has ever told us the day before that they were going to limit their time."
Veblen got his initial job, teaching political economy at a salary of $520 a year, in 1890 when the University of Chicago first opened its doors. Back in the days before SATs and admissions scandals, that school was founded and funded by John D. Rockefeller, the classic robber baron of Standard Oil. (Think of him as the Mark Zuckerberg of his day.)
from the beginning, Thorstein Veblen was there, prepared to focus his mind on Rockefeller and his cronies, the cream of the upper class and the most ruthless profiteers behind that Gilded Age. He was already asking questions that deserve to be raised again in the 1% world of 2019. How had such a conspicuous lordly class developed in America? What purpose did it serve? What did the members of the leisure class actually do with their time and money? And why did so many of the ruthlessly over-worked, under-paid lower classes tolerate such a peculiar, lopsided social arrangement in which they were so clearly the losers?
The WikiLeaks Defence Fund promotes media and public activities to defend Julian Assange and other WikiLeaks journalists.
The Fund supports a dedicated campaign team which works across global media to build support for WikiLeaks and the public’s right to know.
The Courage Foundation and the Defence Fund
The Defence Fund is run by the Courage Foundation – a trust audited by accountants Sterling Partners in the UK for the purpose of providing legal defence and campaign aid to whistleblowers and journalistic sources.
The Courage Foundation is an international organisation that supports those who risk life or liberty to make significant contributions to the historical record.
It also campaigns for the protection of truthtellers and the public’s right to know.
The same disinformation campaigns that epitomize the divisions in US society — beliefs in voter fraud, vaccine conspiracies, and racist conspiracies about migrants, George Soros and Black Lives Matter, to name a few — are a source of strength for autocracies like Russia, where the lack of a consensus on which groups and views are real and which are manufactured by the state strengthens the hand of Putin and his clutch of oligarchs.
In a new Harvard Berkman Center paper, Common -Knowledge Attacks on Democracy, political scientist Henry Farrell (previously and security expert Bruce Schneier (previously) team up to explore this subject by using information security techniques, and come to a very plausible-seeming explanation and a set of policy recommendations to address the issue.
Farrell and Schneier start by exploring the failures of both national security and information security paradigms to come to grips with the issue: Cold War-style national security is oriented around Cold War ideas like “offense–defense balance, conventional deterrence theory, and deterrence by denial,” none of which are very useful for thinking about disinformation attacks; meanwhile, information security limits itself to thinking about “servers and individual networks” and not “the consequences of attacks for the broader fabric of democratic societies.”
Despite these limits, the authors say that there is a way to use the tools of information security to unpick these kinds of “information attacks” on democracies: treat “the entire polity as an information system with associated attack surfaces and threat models” — that is, to think about the democracy itself as the thing to be defended, rather than networks or computers.
From there, they revisit the different disinformation styles of various autocracies and autocratic movements, particularly the Russian style of sowing doubt about what truth is and where it can be found (infamously, Russia’s leading political strategist admits that he secretly funds some opposition groups, but won’t say which ones, leaving everyone to wonder whether a given group is genuine or manufactured — there’s some excellent scholarship contrasting this with the style used by the Chinese state and also with techniques used by authoritarian insurgents inside of democracies, like Milo Yiannopoulos).
In the paper’s framework, the stability of autocrats’ power requires that the public not know how other people feel — for there to be constant confusion about which institutions, groups and views are genuine and which ones are conspiracies, frauds, or power-grabs. Once members of the public discover how many of their neighbors agree that the ruling autocracy is garbage, they are emboldened to rise up against it. Tunisia’s dictatorship was stable so long as the law banning dissent could be enforced, but the lack of enforcement on Facebook allowed Tunisians to gain insight into their neighbors’ discontent, leading to the collapse of the regime.
By contrast, democracies rely on good knowledge about the views of other people, most notably embodied by things like free and fair elections, where citizens get a sense of their neighbors’ views, and are thus motivated to find solutions that they know will be widely viewed as legitimate and will therefore be sustainable.
So when information attacks against democracies sow doubt about the genuineness of movements and views — when Soros is accused of funding left-wing movements, when Koch Industries’ name is all over the funding sources of right-wing think-tanks, when politicians depend on big money, and when Facebook ads and its engagement algorithm pushes people to hoaxes and conspiracies — it weakens democracy in exactly the same way that it strengthens autocracy. Without a sense of which political views are genuine and which are disinformation, all debate degenerates into people calling each other shills or bots, and never arriving at compromises with the stamp of broad legitimacy.
It’s not a coincidence that the right’s political playbook is so intertwined with this kind of disinformation and weakening of democracy.
A widely held belief on the political right is that the most important “freedom” is private property rights, and since rich people are always outnumbered by poor people, subscribers to this ideology hold that “freedom is incompatible with democracy,” because in a fair vote, the majority 99% will vote to redistribute the fortunes of the minority 1%. In this conception, the rich are the only “oppressed minority” who can’t be defended by democracy.
This gives rise to the right’s belief in natural hierarchies, which are sorted out by markets, with the best people rising to the top (Boris Johnson: “As many as 16 per cent of our species have an IQ below 85, while about 2 per cent have an IQ above 130. The harder you shake the pack, the easier it will be for some cornflakes to get to the top.”).
The right’s position, fundamentally, is that the “best” people should boss everyone else around for their own good:
kings should boss around commoners (monarchists); slavers should boss around enslaved people (white nationalists); husbands should boss around wives and kids (Dominionists); America should boss around the world (imperialists); and rich people should boss around workers (capitalists).
How fighting political disinformation could collide with the First Amendment
Make Cootie Catchers, Games, Music Games, Memory Certificates, Saying Goodbye to Teacher, Memory Video Project, Collect Children’s songs games chants, Preschool graduation Party, (BEFORE CHATBOTs) produce a chatterbox, fortune teller, You May Also Connect Autograph Books to the National Standards: FINE ARTS: Visual Arts GRADES K – 12 Understanding the Visual Arts In Relation to History and Cultures.
The Cootie Catcher Game
cite: Educational CyberPlayGround, Inc.
Title: K12 END-OF-YEAR ACTIVITIES K12 end of the year activities that combine fun and learning. Find great ideas for the LAST DAYS OF SCHOOL AND THROUGH THE SUMMER
#LICE CATCHERS #LOUSE CATCHERS #COOTIE CATCHERS FORTUNE TELLERS OR COOTIE CATCHERS The history of those folded paper finger manipulated toys.
“Sue Samuelson traces the origin of cooties to the earliest use of cootie,” meaning body louse, as 1917.
Fortune tellers: Opies’ Lore and Language of School children
We all know “no more pencils no more books no more students dirty looks” but do you know when they first appeared?
HOW TO MAKE A COOTIE CATCHER!
HOW TO PLAY WITH A COOTIE CATHER FORTUNE TELLER
MAKING AN AUTOGRAPH BOOK
Autograph books are a significant piece of Americana, recollecting the times, but they have been given little attention in the body of folklore.
25 JUMBO INDEX CARD, RIBBON, HOLE PUNCHER
You May Also Connect Autograph Books to the Core Standards:
FINE ARTS: Visual Arts GRADES K – 12
Understanding the Visual Arts In Relation to History and Cultures
LANGUAGE ARTS: English GRADES K – 12 Reading for Perspective Communication Skills Applying Knowledge
Autograph books are a significant piece of Americana, recollecting the times, but they have been given little attention in the body of folklore. Such books have a history, possibly continuing the German tradition of writing sentiments of affection in family keepsake albums and of friendship in school notebooks.
Try this on in a yearbook or someone’s autograph book:
If you think you are in love,
And there is still some question,
Don’t worry much about it.
It may be indigestion.
End of the School Year ACTIVITIES
LINK TO YOUR SCHOOL CLASSROOM STEM COOTIE CATCHER VIDEO
Cheaters and Liars buy their kids way into college because they want to affirm their own status it’s all about having The Best for themselves and screw you.
Colleges have always known this happens and is happy to take the cheaters money – there is no “best” here. Advertising / marketing The Best and buying into that is horseshit.
Outright bribery at the Baby Ivies
It represents the gap between the haves and the have-mores. Families earning $500,000 who consider themselves middle class and the working poor.
At $50,000 a Year, the Road to Yale Starts at Age 5 Pre-K and kindergarten are as tough to crack as Ivy League. New York’s Baby Ivies, the private preschools and kindergartens where big money and bigger egos clash over whose three- or five-year-old will gain the first edge. Baby Ivies cull the weak, interview the hopeful and decide which lucky candidates slip past the velvet rope. Cornell University’s. Trinity’s tuition, at more than $52,000 for the K-12 school, exceeds Harvard’s without room and board, the same money as college.
What kind of America are we getting when making money is the only purpose?
What is the future of America? What makes an educated person in 2020?
Do we need rich celebrities who are liars, cheaters, marketed the example of success? How stupid!
SELF ESTEEM VS. NARCISSISM
How college students think they are more special than EVER: Study reveals rocketing sense of entitlement on U.S. campuses 7 January 2013
Just Be Your Own Person – that is the definition of cool.
Undeterred by philosophical disputes on the one hand and the preoccupation with academic achievement on the other, character education finds its strength at the grass roots, in those individual schools and communities where teachers, administrators, and citizens initiate programs designed to improve civility and citizenship — legitimate goals in their own right.
REMEMBER: Colleges are only allowed to exist in the first place with permission from the public to provide an education to the citizens in America so that the common good of the future is secured. If the college is cheating and taking bribes the public and always revoke refuse them accreditation.
Poland Spring accused of defrauding consumers by peddling water from ‘phony’ springs
“Not one drop” of Poland Spring water is spring-fed, claims the 325-page lawsuit on behalf of consumers from Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island.
A federal judge in Connecticut on Thursday gave the green light to a class-action lawsuit claiming the bottled water company’s owner, Nestle SA, defrauded customers by filling their bottles with ordinary groundwater
The Science of Flint’s Water Crisis https://youtu.be/BAIXmt58iBU
In 2015 and 2016, headlines throughout the United States were captured by a human-made water crisis in Flint, Michigan: a chain of events that resulted in the city’s approximately 100,000 residents being exposed to dangerous levels of lead contamination in their tap water due to financial decisions made at the state level.
National Drinking Water Alliance https://www.drinkingwateralliance.orgReaders interested in learning more about water safety and policy in the United States may want to check out the National Drinking Water Alliance (NDWA). This network of organizations aims to “ensure that all children in the U.S. can drink safe water in the places where they live, learn and play” and describes its website as “the nationwide clearinghouse for essential drinking water research and resources.”
The Center for Great Lakes Literacy https://www.cgll.org
North America’s Great Lakes account for approximately 20 percent of the world’s surface freshwater an excellent educational resource.
2016 The Resnicks’ Kern County Water Bank water deal.
A legal cloud has long shadowed the Resnicks’ water deal. The Kern County Water Bank was originally acquired in 1988 by the state to serve as an emergency water supply for the Los Angeles area—at a cost to taxpayers of $148 million in today’s dollars.
In 2014, a judge ruled that the Department of Water Resources had turned the water bank over to the farmers without properly analyzing environmental impacts.
A new environmental review is due next month, and a coalition of environmental groups and water agencies is suing to return the water bank to public ownership. Adam Keats, senior attorney at the Center for Food Safety, describes the transfer of the water bank to the Resnicks and other farmers as “an unconstitutional rip-off.”
And here’s a key fact to consider against this backdrop: The Resnicks aren’t just pumping to irrigate their fruit and nut trees—they’re also in the business of farming water itself. Their land came with decades-old contracts with the state and federal government that allow them to purchase water piped south by state canals. The Kern Water Bank gave them the ability to store this water and sell it back to the state at a premium in times of drought. http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2016/04/lynda-stewart-resnick-california-water
2016 Resnick’s bought H2O $28 sold $196 to CA during drought $30 million profit.
According to an investigation by the Contra Costa Times, between 2000 and 2007 the Resnicks bought water for potentially as little as $28 per acre-foot (the amount needed to cover one acre in one foot of water) and then sold it for as much as $196 per acre-foot to the state, which used it to supply other farmers whose Delta supply had been previously curtailed. The couple pocketed more than $30 million in the process. If winter storms replenish the Kern Water Bank this year, they could again find themselves with a bumper crop of H2O. Meanwhile, the fight between farmers and smelt has plodded on, with the Resnicks becoming prominent advocates for pumping even more water south to farms. In 2007, a group called the Coalition for a Sustainable Delta began using lawsuits of its own to assign blame for the estuary’s decline to just about everything except farming: housing development in Delta floodplains, pesticide use by Delta farms, dredging, power plants, sport fishing, and pollution from mothballed ships. The coalition’s website doesn’t mention the Resnicks, but it originally listed a Paramount Farms fax number, and three of the four officers on its early tax documents were Resnick employees. http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2016/04/lynda-stewart-resnick-california-water
2014 State failed to analyze effects of water bank, judge rules
A court ruling issued Wednesday could throw up obstacles to operation of a Kern County groundwater bank that has helped billionaire Stewart Resnick build a nut empire in the southern San Joaquin Valley. In the latest development in a two-decade legal fight, a Sacramento County Superior Court judge found that the state Department of Water Resources didn’t properly analyze the environmental impacts of the Kern Water Bank, which is partly controlled by Resnick’s Paramount Farms enterprise.
Lynda Resnick and her husband, Stewart, also own a few other things: Teleflora, the nation’s largest flower delivery service; Fiji Water, the best-selling brand of premium bottled water; Pom Wonderful, the iconic pomegranate juice brand; Halos, the insanely popular brand of mandarin oranges formerly known as Cuties; and Wonderful Pistachios, with its “Get Crackin’” ad campaign. The Resnicks are the world’s biggest producers of pistachios and almonds, and they also hold vast groves of lemons, grapefruit, and navel oranges. All told, they claim to own America’s second-largest produce company, worth an estimated $4.2 billion.
Billionaires Behaving Badly: Lynda and Stewart ResnickWhen a Mother Jones reporter was in the country writing an expose on Fiji Water, she was snatched up by police from an internet cafe and detained.
Crystal Springs Preserve owner Robert Thomas speaks during the unveiling of WaterVentures, Florida’s Learning Lab at Crystal Springs Preserve in partnership with Zephyrhills Brand 100% Natural Spring Water on January 9, 2013 in Crystal Springs, Florida.
Zephyrhills, population 14,000, has long made its name on water. But it was when the bottling plant south of town began filling 4 million to 5 million bottles of water every day.
Every day, 30 million gallons of water gush from the Floridan aquifer into Crystal Springs. Nestled in what is now a 525-acre wildlife preserve, the springs are almost alien in their beauty: impossibly clear, perpetually cool and, in spots, the same turquoise color as the Zephyrhills label.
Florida springs have been suffering in recent years due to pollution such as fertilizers and nitrates. “They convinced us that this water was somehow better than the water in our taps even though it’s no better, and then convinced us to pay 1,000 or 10,000 times more for it,” she said.
In the next two weeks, Russia is planning to attempt something no other country has tried before. It’s going to test whether it can disconnect from the rest of the world electronically while keeping the internet running for its citizens. This means it will have to reroute all its data internally, rather than relying on servers abroad.
The test is key to a proposed “sovereign internet” law currently working its way through Russia’s government. It looks likely to be eventually voted through and signed into law by President Vladimir Putin, though it has stalled in parliament for now.
Pulling an iron curtain down over the internet is a simple idea, but don’t be fooled: it’s a fiendishly difficult technical challenge to get right. It is also going to be very expensive. The project’s initial cost has been set at $38 million by Russia’s financial watchdog, but it’s likely to require far more funding than that. One of the authors of the plan has said it’ll be more like $304 million, Bloomberg reports, but even that figure, industry experts say, won’t be enough to get the system up and running, let alone maintain it.
Not only that, but it has already proved deeply unpopular with the general public. An estimated 15,000 people took to the streets in Moscow earlier this month to protest the law, one of the biggest demonstrations in years.
So how will Russia actually disconnect itself from the global internet? “It is unclear what the ‘disconnect test’ might entail,” says Andrew Sullivan, president and CEO of the Internet Society. All we know is that if it passes, the new law will require the nation’s internet service providers (ISPs) to use only exchange points inside the country that are approved by Russia’s telecoms regulator, Roskomnadzor.
Operating hours Mon-Thu 8:30-17:30 Fri 8:30-16:15
+7 (495) 987-68-00
These exchange points are where internet service providers connect with each other. It’s where their cabling meets at physical locations to exchange traffic. These locations are overseen by organizations known as internet exchange providers (IXPs). Russia’s largest IXP is in Moscow, connecting cities in Russia’s east but also Riga in neighboring Latvia.
MSK-IX, as this exchange point is known, is one of the world’s largest. It connects over 500 different ISPs and handles over 140 gigabits of throughput during peak hours on weekdays. There are six other internet exchange points in Russia, spanning most of its 11 time zones. Many ISPs also use exchanges that are physically located in neighboring countries or that are owned by foreign companies. These would now be off limits. Once this stage is completed, it would provide Russia with a literal, physical “on/off switch” to decide whether its internet is shielded from the outside world or kept open.
What’s in a name?
As well as rerouting its ISPs, Russia will also have to unplug from the global domain name system (DNS) so traffic cannot be rerouted through any exchange points that are not inside Russia.
The DNS is basically a phone book for the internet: when you type, for example, “google.com” into your browser, your computer uses the DNS to translate this domain name into an IP address, which identifies the correct server on the internet to send the request. If one server won’t respond to a request, another will step in. Traffic behaves rather like water—it will seek any gap it can to flow through.
“The creators of the DNS wanted to create a system able to work even when bits of it stopped working, regardless of whether the decision to break parts of it was deliberate or accidental,” says Brad Karp, a computer scientist at University College London. This in-built resilience in the underlying structure of the internet will make Russia’s plan even harder to carry out.
The actual mechanics of the DNS are operated by a wide variety of organizations, but a majority of the “root servers,” which are its foundational layer, are run by groups in the US. Russia sees this as a strategic weakness and wants to create its own alternative, setting up an entire new network of its own root servers.
“An alternate DNS can be used to create an alternate reality for the majority of Russian internet users,” says Ameet Naik, an expert on internet monitoring for the software company ThousandEyes. “Whoever controls this directory controls the internet.” Thus, if Russia can create its own DNS, it will have at least a semblance of control over the internet within its borders.
This won’t be easy, says Sullivan. It will involve configuring tens of thousands of systems, and it will be difficult, if not impossible, to identify all the different access points citizens use to get online (their laptops, smartphones, iPads, and so on). Some of them will be using servers abroad, such as Google’s Public DNS, which Russia simply won’t be able to replicate—so the connection will fail when a Russian user tries to access them.
Could someone really destroy the whole Internet? YES
The Internet is more than just a technology. It is a domain similar to the domains of land, air, sea and space, but with its own distinct challenges.
The beginning of cloud based music streaming technology starts in 1899.
There is Nothing new under the sun, so if you were born after 1985 this may sound like fossil hunting, however this really happened!
Swing Hostess is a comedy that shows a fictional company named Jukebox Emporium Company using the real technology – serving music from vinyl records through the telephone wire that allowed Jukebox users to hear the requested songs.
Watch Swing Hostess 1944 Comedy
Lots of sexist, nasty comments about “those kind of women”
► 33:38 Jukebox User Request to the operator:
How About the Cook Stove Special?
Yeah, you know Home on the Range. 🙂
► 14:00 The Job Training explains the “File” system
In the beginning of Wired Music technology, you ordered your song to play by telephone. The company service had a central office with operators who loaded disks onto record players. It only served a limited area of office buildings and other businesses. The bandwidth of the premium phone lines was better than a standard phone line (300-3000 Hz), but still not exactly “hi-fi”, but for 78 records it was good enough.
► 34:00 Get the marines! we’ve got a war to wage.
► 34:24 The company phone operator receives a phone call from the Juke Box “User” who has paid .25¢, .10¢, or .05¢ cents to hear the vinyl record spin the requested song through the telephone wire to the customer/user who paid to hear it.
► From vinyl records, cassettes, CDs, Napster files, mp3, mp4, wav etc, ipod players, cell phones to Streaming companies where it is no longer necessary to own the file.
Now we pay $10.00 monthly for all you can eat modern cloud based streamingtech companies when a user can choose from millions of files.
The Shyvers Multiphone, released in 1939 by Kenneth C. Shyvers, was an early model of a coin-operated phonograph (also known as a jukebox). It allowed patrons at restaurants, cafes and bars to play music at their table, and worked through telephone lines. The user inserted the necessary amount of coins, and was connected to a team of all-female disc jockeys in Seattle, who manually put on the selected song on a phonograph, playing the music through the telephone connection. At the height of the product’s popularity, the 8,000 Multiphones were used in various establishments primarily on the west coast. – Shyvers’ 1947 patent for his music box design – Development of Telephone Line Broadcasting Systems -A Centralized Music Library
The Multiphone was a music selection device that operated over telephone lines mostly in Seattle, Tacoma and Olympia, Washington from 1939 to 1959.
It was created by Kenneth and Lois Shyvers of the Seattle, Washington area. This man also invented the pinball machine. The Multiphone is a version of a jukebox wall box.
These units were typically placed on tables, counters or bars. A patron could deposit a coin and speak with a telephone operator standing at a turntable at the Central Music studio, who would then play a selection in the speaker at the bottom of the Multiphone. These units became popular because they had a record range of 170 whereas jukeboxes only had a record range of 20-48.
How it worked
These units sat on tables, counters, and bars. The system required two leased telephone lines, one for the multiphone, one for the loudspeakers on the wall that were connected to the record playing station. First you would select from the 170 choices of tunes, drop the correct amount of dimes in the coin slot at the top of the machine, for your selections. The two lights in the middle of the unit would then light up, and thru one of the leased telephone lines the disc jockey would be alerted and then they would talk direct to you thru the speaker in the top of the unit to find out your choices. You would give the numbered choices, they would then be played, with the sound coming thru the four inch speaker in the bottom of the unit. These units became popular because they had a record range of 170 whereas jukeboxes only had 20-24. The jukebox was remodeled to play 180 45 rpm records and the multiphone could not compete and went out of business in 1959. This unit is buffed cast aluminum and has been rewired to plug in and see the lights work. There is also speaker wire attached to hook up to your unit if so desired. The condition is excellent for its age. All original except the cord, no dents, no rust and no pitting. … Empire State Building Shyvers Jukebox Selector Pic
played an important role in the evolution of the jukebox, an invention that grew to become a staple of its time and is still often used in cafes and restaurants to recreate the temporality of the mid 20th century. The first recorded coin operated phonograph was presented in 1889, in a public demonstration at the Palais Royal Restaurant in San Francisco on November 23, 1889.
Louis T. Glass, the operator of this initial model, is credited as “the father of the concept.” Before delving into the phonograph world, Glass worked as a telegraph operator at Western Union, but then left the company with the advent of the telephone, investing in various telephone companies in Oakland and San Francisco. He eventually became the general manager of the Pacific States Telephone and Telegraph Co. After his successful investments, he then partnered with businessman William S. Arnold to further develop the coin-operated phonograph.
Though Glass is considered to be the “father” of the jukebox, he and Arnold only filed a patent for the “Coin Actuated Attachment for Phonographs,” not a completely functional coin-operated phonograph in 1889.
The people of the 1930s and 1940s had coin-operated music players.
The Multiphone and jukeboxes created a new “social practice” of listening to the same music together as media scholar Jose van Dijck says in his article
“Record and Hold: Popular Music between personal and Collective memory.”
According to Dijck, a listener’s memory of music cannot be removed from the context in which it was experienced. For the people during the age of the Multiphone and jukeboxes, the conversations at bars and diners about selecting a song to play made a special place in listeners’ minds. More importantly, this very practice of going to a public place to listen to music is the effect of the technology’s power to create new rituals and thinking as media scholar, Marshall McLuhan discusses in his pivotal work, “The Medium Is The Message.”
2019 The Music Modernization Act passes
Copyright Royalty Board (CRB) ruled to increase royalty payments to songwriters and music publishers from music streaming companies by nearly 44 percent, the biggest rate increase granted in CRB history. These rates will go into effect for interactive streaming and limited download services like Amazon, Apple, Google, and Spotify for the years 2018-2022, and will transform how songwriters are paid by these interactive streaming services.
This was a hearing pitting songwriters and music publishers against five technology companies, including three of the largest companies in the world (Apple, Amazon and Google), which sought to reduce the already low rate of royalties that they pay to songwriters for the use of their music on their streaming services. [monopolies vs. antitrust law]
Even though the songwriters were looking for a per-stream rate, that they did not get, the digital services were fighting to reduce rates, so it is still a victory for them. Streamlined rate terms replace calculations with a simplified formula based on the “greater of” concept. This, under previous conditions, may have involved dozens of computations involving different offerings has been reduced to two variables. Originally, songwriters asked the CRB to grant the greater of 15 cents per 100 streams or $1.06 per user per month, but they did gain ground. Over the last decade, since the beginning of music streaming, writer royalties had been strictly based on a percentage of each streaming service’s revenue, putting them at the mercy of subjective corporate decision-making.
► Broadcasts are considered a public performance, and garner a higher performance license rate. For instance, Rodney Jerkins illustrated the discrepancy in September at the Recording Academy’s District Advocacy Day in Los Angeles by sharing an accounting statement for “As Long As You Love Me,” a top 10 hit for Justin Bieber in 2012. By 2013, Jerkins’ stake in the song generated $146,000 in performance royalties, while streaming revenue from the same period garnered $278 for 38 million Pandora plays and $218 for 34 million YouTube streams.
1) For the next five years (from 2018 – 2022) the per-stream royalty rate for mechanical royalties will increase incrementally from the current 10.5% of Gross revenue to 15.1% of Gross revenue. For example, in the current model, if a music service made $100 in Gross Revenue, then 10.5% of $100 is the pot of money being paid for all the compositions, an amount of $10.50. If there are 100 streams in that one month, the service divides $10.50 by 100 streams to get a per stream rate of $0.105 per stream Under the new model, by 2022, the 10.5% will increase to 15.1%. Doing the same calculation means each stream is now worth $0.151 per stream, an increase of about 40%.
2) If the music services pay the royalties late, they will be charged a late fee.
3) If a record label negotiates a higher rate with Spotify for the recording (as there is no government regulation or rate for recordings), then the royalty rate for the composition can also increase, but with a limit. For example, if a record label gets 70% of Gross Revenue, then the amount being paid for the composition could theoretically increase to above 15.1%.
HOW LONG HAS THIS BEEN GOING ON?
The Telephone Line Music Systems were an interesting but short-lived feature in the history of the jukebox.
► 2019 The CRB mandated 15.1% rate, phasing in over the next five years, is one of the highest rates in the world and is now a rate that must be met under the law.
2019 ARSC CONFERENCE The Outreach Committee of the Association for Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC)
53rd annual ARSC Conference, May 8-11, 2019, in Portland, Oregon.
The conference programs will take place at the Benson Hotel, an historic hotel located within walking distance of shopping, dining, and entertainment in the Pearl District, Pioneer Square, and downtown Portland. It is within striking distance of several of the city’s many record stores and Powell’s City of Books. Museums include the Portland Art Museum, Oregon Historical Society, and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry.
The pre-conference workshop, “All Things Digital: Digital Audio Workstation Basics,” will be held on May 8, 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m., at the Crystal Ballroom, in the Benson Hotel.
A block of rooms has been reserved at special rates for ARSC conference attendees. ARSC’s contracted dates extend from May 7-11. Additionally, the group rate will be honored three days before and three days after, based on availability. The deadline for reservations at the group rate is April 12. After that date, reservations will be accepted on a space available basis at the prevailing rate.
Register early and save! In order to receive the early registration discount, you must register for the conference by April 19. Registration options are available for members and non-members. A special fee waiver program is available for student members. Online registration is now available at:
ARSC is dedicated to the preservation and study of sound recordings — in all genres of music and speech, in all formats, and from all periods. Reflecting this broad mission, the upcoming conference offers talks and sessions that will appeal to both professionals and collectors.
Presenters include representatives from archives across North America and Europe, as well as record collectors, dealers, audio engineers and producers, academics, historians, and musicians.
This year’s plenary sessions are:
► The Music Modernization Act and You
Discogs — Collaboration and Crowdsourcing in the 21st Century
Presentations and session topics include:
The Fabulous Wailers and the Founding of the Northwest Rock ’n’ Roll Sound
Phil Moore: Portland’s Forgotten Groomer of the Stars and Musical Genius
Portland’s Native Son Mel Blanc: “Wascally Wabbit” Making “Wecords” 🙂
Recent Developments in Audio Retrieval via Optical Methods
Discography, Then and Now
Recent Developments in the Preservation of Wire Recordings, Magnabelts, and Dictabelts
The First Black-Owned Recording Ventures Reissued: Black Swans
Jack Penewell: The Paramount Test Pressings and Private Recordings of the Inventor of the Twin-Six Guitar
Lacquers: Playback and Content
How to Leverage Open Mass Digitization Audio Projects
A Century of Concert Spiritual Recordings: The Pioneers
The First Days of Disco
Preserving NBC Radio Coverage of the Founding of the United Nations
Media Preservation and Digitization Principles and Practices
Portland’s DIY Scene: The Punk Underground, and Rock and Roll
Mahalia Jackson’s Apollo Recordings
How Archiving Challenges of the Past Can Be Used to Shape Future Approaches
Laurel and Hardy on the Radio: Rare and Well Done
Bob Fass and Radio Unnameable: Saving NYC’s Radical Radio History
Surveying Archival Yiddish Audio Collections: A Treasure of Yiddish Songs and Stories
Where the Music Matters: KEXP Audio Archives Digitization
Inventing the Recording in 1900 Spain: The Era of the Gabinetes Fonográficos
► Thursday evening “Ask the Technical Committee”
► Friday evening open to the general public “Collectors’ Roundtable” Friday evening, join Mark Cantor for the music-on-film event, “Music is Where You Find It.” Most fans of music on film are well aware of the riches to be found within feature films, short subjects, SOUNDIES, and television broadcasts. But popular music — jazz, blues, country, ethnic, and just plain “pop” — can be found in many other film genres. In this session, we will explore some of the other sources — often neglected when music on film is discussed — where great performances can be found: fund raising films, industrial shorts, television commercials, raw newsreel footage, experimental and independent films, propaganda pieces, animated cartoons, and home movies. This program is drawn from the Celluloid Improvisations Music Film Archive, perhaps the largest private collection of musical content where 16mm sound film is the primary source. Join us for a session of rarities that includes appearances from Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington, Helen Humes, Don Shirley, Big Bill Broonzy, “Cannonball” Adderley, Spade Cooley, Eddie Lang, and many more!
► PRE-CONFERENCE WORKSHOP
“All Things Digital: Digital Audio Workstation Basics” is a full-day, hands-on workshop on May 8, at the Benson Hotel. The workshop will give attendees a practical overview of digital audio workstation use for archival applications. It is intended for archivists, collection managers, researchers, students, and anyone who needs to have a working knowledge of digital audio. No previous experience necessary. The workshop is limited to 50 attendees.
OPTIONAL PRE-CONFERENCE TOUR
On May 8, tour Cascade Record Pressing, the first large-production, automated record pressing plant in the Pacific Northwest. It is Oregon’s only vinyl record pressing plant, and produces high-quality records for discerning artists and labels. Learn about all aspects of the record pressing process. Cascade Record Pressing is located about 20 minutes southeast of downtown Portland in Milwaukie. Grace Krause, Project Manager at Cascade Record Pressing, is generously offering a pre-conference tour for a limited number of participants (maximum: 15). Participants meet in the Benson Hotel lobby at 1:15 p.m. for 1:30 p.m. departure for the tour. Transportation will be by shared Uber vehicles. Participants return to hotel at 3:30 p.m. Fee applies (covers transportation).
NEWCOMER ORIENTATION and MENTORING PROGRAM
ARSC invites first-time conference attendees and conference veterans to participate in the Conference Mentoring Program. The program pairs newcomers with long-time members, based on their shared interests. Mentors provide mentees with an orientation to the conference, the association, and its participants in informal meetings over the course of the conference. Only ARSC veterans who are committed to the mentoring program should volunteer.
The conference will conclude on Saturday evening with the annual Awards Banquet. Winners of the 2018 Awards for Excellence and 2019 Lifetime Achievement and Distinguished Service awards will be honored. Finalists for the 2019 Awards for Excellence will be announced.
The Association for Recorded Sound Collections is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the preservation and study of sound recordings — in all genres of music and speech, in all formats, and from all periods. ARSC is unique in bringing together private individuals and institutional professionals — everyone with a serious interest in recorded sound.