King of the Dudes, What is Battle of the Bros all duded up?

King of the Dudes

Other words such as dude also emerged in the Five Points, said Cassidy.

Dud in old Irish, appearing in the Irish-English dictionary by Father Patrick Dineen published in 1927, means “dolt, a numbskull, a rubbernecker; a mopish, shy, foolish-looking fellow”, he said. In the Five Points, says Cassidy, richer classes would come for the booze and the girls, and the working-class Irish used to look at them with their monocles and top hats and derogatorily called them “dud”.

1888 Evander Berry Wall a New York Socialite was dubbed
“King of the Dudes.”
New York American newspaper “Battle of the Dudes”. The New York Journal-American was a daily newspaper published in New York City from 1937 to 1966.
dude

This version of the word is still in occasional use in American slang, as in the phrase “all duded up” for getting dressed in fancy clothes.
He inherited $2 million before the age of 22.  He went bankrupt in 1899 and  declared that “New York had become fit only for businessmen” and left for Paris in 1912. He used bespoke shirtmaker Charvet, where Wall had his signature “spread eagle” collar shirts and cravats custom-made for himself and his dog. Wall always dined at the Ritz with his dog, whose collars and ties were made by Charvet in the same style and fabric as his master’s. When he died, he left only $12,608, having “squandered nearly every cent on pleasure.”

Learn about Irish American Vernacular English
How the Irish Invented Slang
Subtitle: The Secret Language of the Crossroads
by Professor Dan Cassidy

How the Irish Invented American Gambling Slang into Irish American Vernacular English.

What Does Boogie Mean?
The Linguist is taking notes. 1941 Ball of Fire – Billy Wilder, Gary Cooper, Barbara Stanwyk.

Slang is words that takes off his coat, spits on it’s hands and gets to work!

Giniker – Irish American Vernacular English: The Sunday Times Ireland July 9th 2006

IT SOUNDS like a load of bunkum, or in this case buanchumadh, but according to an American academic the Irish language has been a huge influence on American slang.

The Sanas (Irish Etymology) of Faro, Poker and the Secret Flash Words for the Brotherhood of American Gamblers. By DANIEL CASSIDY 5/13/06

Remember in 1859 Philadelphia is the 4th largest city in the WORLD.

“There’s A Sucker (Sách úr, fresh new “fat cat”) Born Every Minute.” See etymology of Bunk and Dude both are Irish.

The Sanas (Irish Etymology) of Faro, Poker and the Secret Flash Words for the Brotherhood of American Gamblers. By DANIEL CASSIDY 5/13/06

“Language is a virus from outer space.” – William S. Burroughs BEAT generation

Irish American Vernacular English words traced, found, and borrowed into Standard American English.

Karen Ellis Guest Lecturer
Honoring the work of Scholar Peter Tamony and The Sanas, the Etymology of Jazz and Dan Cassidy

Dudes: NYT News Desk 1942

dude

Well dressed in 1902 

The best-dressed American in Europe, the King of the Dudes. He was reported to possess 285 pairs of pants, 5,000 custom-tailored neckties. It was rumored that he changed his ties six times a day. His conduct was motivated by a great principle: find out what suits you and always wear it. Berry Wall usually wore capes and coats of horse-blanket plaid, high horse-collars cinched with lush Ascot cravats.

Donald Trump advisor/confidante Roger J Stone Jr with wife Nydia at the Inauguration. #Dandy #Style Roger Stone is primarily known as a political consultant, but he also serves as the men’s fashion correspondent for the Daily Caller. #1 DUDE The Dapper Don

Panicked Wall Street Bros Wonder: What Is Business-Casual??

Goldman Sachs bank execs Panicked Wall Street Bros Wonder: What Is Business-Casual???

Patter for Three-Card Monte – thanks to Whit Haydn School for Scoundrels

Who Killed Society by Cleveland Amory

DHS, FBI say election systems in all 50 states were targeted in 2016

DUDE Trump’s Justice Department OKs Trading with the Enemy
Trading with the Enemy Act  George Bush’s grandfather, the late US senator DUDE Prescott Bush, was a director and shareholder of companies that profited from their involvement with the financial backers of Nazi Germany. Files in the US National Archives shows Prescott Bush – how did we get here was a director  involved with…

Thorstein Veblen, the greatest American thinker you probably never heard of, predicted the rise of a Gilded Business Man and the demolition of democracy. The man who saw this coming a century ago

Louis the 14th thought “The State” was a person. HIM!

DUDE Trump’s money came from his grandfather another DUDE WHO owned a general store and whore house.

Donald Trump’s money originally came from his grandfather Friedrich Trump a German immigrant, who ran a whore house /restaurant – bar, in British Columbia.
Buried in a ghost town in Canada’s subarctic are the roots of the family fortune that paved Donald Trump’s path to prominence.

Guthrie reworked his signature Dust Bowl ballad “I Ain’t Got No Home” into a blistering broadside against his landlord: BEACH HAVEN AIN’T MY HOME (aka. “Old Man Trump”) Words by Woody Guthrie

Nov. 8 election that Eric had asked if American Hat Co. could make a custom hat for his father. Soon after, the manufacturer was at work getting measurements ready as well as the materials befitting the president of the United States.
“It morphed into now we’re making hats for Eric, for Don Jr. and for Mike Pence as well,” Mundee said.
Mundee said the Trump family requested a light-colored hat versus black, so the manufacturer went with a silverish tone. The material is a mixture of beaver belly fur and mink, making the hat soft as silk. The crown, or top of the hat, is done in a cattleman’s style. He said this specific style of hat is widely known as the finest in the cowboy market.
And it’s not just the material that American Hat Co. uses that puts their stamp on the product. It’s also the gold foil stamp on the inside band that also illustrates its quality, as well as the Keith Maddox mark of “KM” on the brim of the hat. The hat retails for about $2,800.

cyberplayground

COLUMBUS DAY TEACH HISTORY THROUGH SONG
In fourteen hundred ninety-two Columbus sailed the ocean blue.

Maurice Abravanel was a descendant of Don Isaac Abravanel, born in 1438, who, as finance minister to Queen Esabella of Spain, arranged funding for the first voyage of Christopher Columbus.

Repeat: “U can’t march off 2 war in 3/4” ~ Karen Ellis
MUSIC OF WAR RESOURCES, PATRIOTISM, PROPOGANDA AND PROTEST
First Nation Songs, Civil War, WW1, WW2, Military War music Patriotic, Protest and Union Songs
“President’s Day Activities! Learn the President’s song 
Classroom Music, The State Song: Educational CyberPlayGround
classroom music, teach your state song. Find all 50 state songs

 
 

Have a Great American Thanksgiving and here's your Folkie Music Menu

Each year American Routes americanroutes.org celebrates Thanksgiving weekend with words and music from the National Heritage Fellows Concert in Washington DC. Since 1982 the National Endowment for the Arts has presented the fellowships. It’s America’s highest award in Folk & Traditional Arts. We’ll hear a mix of this year’s fellows live from the stage as well as great recordings of those from years gone by: The Holmes Brothers, Doc Watson, Tremé Brass Band, Michael Doucet with Beausoleil, Boozoo Chavis, Flaco Jimenez, Mavis Staples, Del McCoury, John Cephas & Phil Wiggins, Andy Statman and many more. Blues and jazz, Cajun and zydeco, Téjano and klezmer, bluegrass and gospel as well as Native American voices, make a cornucopia of sounds and stories for the holiday!
All from American Routes, the weekly public radio program devoted to the music and culture of New Orleans, the Gulf South and beyond. American Routes is produced with Tulane University’s School of Liberal Arts and distributed nationally by Public Radio Exchange.
This Week’s Playlist:
Hour 1
The Maryland and Delaware Singing and Praying Bands live performance live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“Black Cat on the Line” (Cephas) Cephas and Wiggins From Richmond to Atlanta (Bullseye Blues)
“Big Black Train” (Johnson/Sherry) The Earls of Leicester The Earls of Leicester (Rounder)
“House of the Rising Sun” (Ray/Holmes) Doc & Richard Watson Third Generation Blues (Sugar Hill)
Instrumental: “Fiddler’s Dream/Whistling Rufus/Ragtime Annie” (Trad.) Doc Watson Foundation: The Doc Watson Guitar Instrumental Collection 1964-1998 (Sugar Hill)
Kevin Doyle on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“Parlez-Nous A Boire (Speak to Us of Drinking)” (Trad.) Beausoleil Parlez-Nous A Boire & More (Arhoolie)
“Dog Hill” (Chavis/Simien) Boozoo Chavis Boozoo Chavis (Electra Nonesuch)
“Ay Te Dejo en San Antonio” (Jimenez) Flaco Jimenez Ay Te Dejo en San Antonio (Arhoolie)
Instrumental: “Viva Seguin” (Jimenez) Flaco Jimenez Arriba El Norte (Rounder)
“Descarga Cachao” (Lopez) Cachao Descarga Cachao (Epic)
Cowboy Donley live performance and on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“Sing On” (Trad.) The Treme Brass Band New Orleans Music! (Mardi Gras)
End Bed: “Tipitina” (Byrd) Allen Toussaint American Routes original recording
Hour 2
Rufus White live performance and on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
Yvonne Walker Keshick on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“On the King’s Highway” (Statman) Andy Statman Old Brooklyn (Shefa)
Vera Nakonechny on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
Instrumental: “One in Nine” (Statman) Andy Statman Old Brooklyn (Shefa)
Henry Arquette on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“Loggin’ Man” (McCoury) The Del McCoury Band The Cold Hard Facts (Rounder)
“John Henry” (Trad.) John Jackson Don’t Let Your Deal Go Down (Arhoolie)
Caroline Mazloomi on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“I’ll Take You There” (Isbell) The Staple Singers The Muscle Shoals Sound (Rhino)
Instrumental: “Opus de Soul” (Thomas/Isbell) Albert King, Steve Cropper, Pops Staples Jammed Together (Stax)
The Holmes Brothers live performance and on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
End Bed: “Will the Circle Be Unbroken” (Carter) 2014 NEA Heritage Fellows live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014

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Educational CyberPlayGround Blog:
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Dear NetHappenings Reader,
Happy Labor Day  looking forward to getting back into the groove.
enjoy,
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FBI Radio: Public Service or Self-Serving?
http://dailysignal.com/2014/09/02/fbi-radio-public-service-self-serving/
FBI radio began in 1965, according to the FBI. The first series was called “FBI Washington” and aired on ABC. In 1990, it was reformatted and renamed “FBI This Week.” Since then, more than 1,200 one-minute spots have aired.
Awesome-radio – a curated list of radio resources and information
https://github.com/kyleterry/awesome-radio
My exploration into CB radio. And radio in general. A curated list of awesome radio resources. Inspired by awesome-*. I recently pulled out my CB radio and installed it in my truck. This inspired me to create an open source repository of all the radio related resources I found helpful and my notes on the subject. This project is aimed at hackers who enjoy all aspects of radio communication. While a lot of this technology isn’t usable by citizens and is heavily regulated by the FCC, just knowing anything about it is special. I’ve been interested in learning the ins and outs of radio, as well as hearing stories, new and old.
Hackers Build a Skype That’s Not Controlled by Microsoft call;ed TOX
http://www.wired.com/2014/09/tox/
Android security mystery – ‘fake’ cellphone towers found in U.S.
http://www.welivesecurity.com/2014/08/28/android-security-2/
“What we find suspicious is that a lot of these interceptors are right on top of U.S. military bases.” says Goldsmith. “Whose interceptor is it? Who are they, that’s listening to calls around military bases? The point is: we don’t really know whose they are.” What has come as a surprise is how many “interceptors” are in active use in the U.S., and that their purpose remains mysterious.
The VME Dominator™ is a real time GSM A5.1 cell phone interceptor. It cannot be detected. It allows interception of voice and text. It also allows voice manipulation, up or down channel blocking, text intercept and modification, calling & sending text on behalf of the user, and directional finding of a user during random monitoring of calls. The VME Dominator is far superior to passive systems in being able to intervene and manipulate calls and sms, working with up to 4 base stations concurrently, and up to 20 users in the system at any one time.
Shenzhen trip report – visiting the world’s manufacturing ecosystem
http://joi.ito.com/weblog/2014/09/01/shenzhen-trip-r.html
While intellectual property seems to be mostly ignored, tradecraft and trade secrets seem to be shared selectively in a complex network of family, friends and trusted colleagues. This feels a lot like open source, but it’s not. The pivot from piracy to staking out intellectual property rights isn’t a new thing. The United States blatantly stole book copyright until it developed it’s own publishing very early in US history. The Japanese copied US auto companies until it found itself in a leadership position. It feels like Shenzhen is also at this critical point where a country/ecosystem goes from follower to leader.
Russian gas giant Gazprom’s CEO Alexei Miller , Russian President Vladimir Putin and Chinese Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli attend a ceremony marking the welding of the first link of “The Power of Siberia” gas pipeline outside Yakutsk in eastern Siberia yesterday as construction of the US$20.8 billion pipeline that will bring gas from the country’s far east to China began. Work on the Chinese section is due to start 2015.
MICROSOFT Corp has been granted a 20-day deadline by a Chinese regulator to explain why it held back on its “not fully disclosed information” regarding Windows and Office suite sales.
Hong Kong’s Basic Law
http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKBN0GV04A20140831
China’s rubber-stamp parliament is expected on Sunday to endorse the framework for Hong Kong’s first direct leadership election, due in 2017. But Beijing is likely to only allow two or three “patriotic” candidates, with no open nominations. That will anger pro-democracy activists who have threatened civil disobedience, potentially disrupting Hong Kong’s major financial hub.
China rules out full democracy for Hong Kong
http://www.reuters.com/news/video?videoId=341720115
Pro-democracy activists take to the streets of Hong Kong after China rejects their demands for free elections.
Hong Kong police arrest 19 in pro-democracy scuffles
http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKBN0GX06V20140902
Hong Kong police said on Tuesday they arrested 19 people during scuffles with pro-democracy activists prompted by China’s decision not to allow the Asian financial hub to choose its next leader.
Fast food workers plan biggest US strike to date over minimum wage
http://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/sep/01/fast-food-strike-minimum-wage-workers-protest
Workers from McDonald’s, Burger King and other chains to hold walkout protest on Thursday as battle to unionize escalates. America’s fast food workers are planning their biggest strike to date this Thursday, with a nationwide walkout in protest at low wages and poor healthcare.
Bank of America seeks to void verdict in $1.27 billion ‘Hustle’ case
http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKBN0GS2OL20140828
Bank of America Corp on Thursday asked a federal judge to throw out a jury verdict finding it liable for fraud over defective mortgages sold by its Countrywide unit that resulted in a $1.27 billion penalty.
Several Swiss banks pull out of U.S. tax program:
http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKBN0GV09X20140831
At least 10 Swiss banks have withdrawn from a U.S. program aimed at settling a tax dispute between them and the United States, Swiss newspaper NZZ am Sonntag said on Sunday, quoting unnamed sources.
Management dictating their own terms
http://randsinrepose.com/archives/the-wolf/
The Wolf: You’ve heard of the 10x engineer, but I am here to tell you about the Wolf. They are an engineer and they consistently exhibit the following characteristics:
Man builds 3D printed concrete castle in his own backyard
http://www.3ders.org/articles/20140826-minnesotan-world-first-3d-printed-concrete-castle-in-his-own-backyard.html
2.6m historic pictures posted online
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-28976849
The Civil Rights Movement web site
http://www.crmvet.org/
continues to collect documents, stories, and biography of Civil Rights Movement workers. One document IS folklore. This leaflet hits every stereotype you’ve every heard of but, it IS  folklore from Birmingham AL
http://www.crmvet.org/docs/6106_bham_racist-leaflet.pdf
Our Use of Little Words Can, Uh, Reveal Hidden Interests
http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2014/09/01/344043763/our-use-of-little-words-can-uh-reveal-hidden-interests
The Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program that Pennebaker and his students built in the early 1990s has, like any computer program, an ability to peer into massive data sets and discern patterns that no human could ever hope to match. Specifically, what Pennebaker found was that when the language style of two people matched, when they used pronouns, prepositions, articles and so forth in similar ways at similar rates, they were much more likely to end up on a date.
Georgia State University Library releases Library Instruction Recorder plugin as Open Source
http://homer.gsu.edu/blogs/library/2014/08/29/georgia-state-university-library-releases-library-instruction-recorder-plugin-as-open-source/
As part of its commitment to the free culture movement, Georgia State University Library is pleased to announce the initial release of the Library Instruction Recorder (LIR). LIR is a free, open source WordPress plugin that allows librarians and library staff to record and report on library instruction sessions.
Recent research on leadership barriers for women working in tech
http://www.inc.com/kimberly-weisul/insane-double-standard-for-tech-women.html?cid=sf01002
BBC begins kids coding push with Bitesize and TV shows
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-28984411
The BBC has published computer programming study guides, quizzes and other support materials on its Bitesize site to coincide with the new computing curriculum’s introduction in England. The broadcaster also revealed several programming-themed children’s TV shows will be broadcast in the autumn. The BBC described the move as an “early start” to a wider coding initiative planned for next year.
The Serif Readability Myth August 29, 2014 / Kas Thomas
http://author-zone.com/
I’ve been involved in publishing all my life, and like many others I’ve always accepted as axiomatic the notion that typefaces with serifs (such as Times-Roman) are, in general, are more readable than non-serif typefaces (e.g., Helvetica). It never occurred to me that there was any doubt about the matter whatsoever. Were the monks who invented serifs and other text ornamentations merely engaging in idle doodling? Weren’t they consciously intending to increase the legibility of the important documents they were transcribing?
How I Start: Go With Peter Bourgon
http://howistart.org/posts/go/1
Go is meant to be simple, but sometimes the conventions can be a little hard to grasp. I’d like to show you how I start all of my Go projects, and how to use Go’s idioms. Let’s build a backend service for a web app.
Download videos from YouTube (and mores sites)
https://rg3.github.io/youtube-dl/
youtube-dl is a small command-line program to download videos from YouTube.com and a few more sites. It requires the Python interpreter (2.6, 2.7, or 3.3+), and it is not platform specific. We also provide a Windows executable that includes Python. youtube-dl should work in your Unix box, in Windows or in Mac OS X. It is released to the public domain, which means you can modify it, redistribute it or use it however you like. You can also contact us on the irc channel #youtube-dl(webchat) on freenode.
Copyright © 2006-2014 Ricardo Garcia Gonzalez
Under the Microscope
[print edition title; the online title was “As Data Overflows Online, Researchers Grapple With Ethics”]
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/technology/the-boon-of-online-data-puts-social-science-in-a-quandary.html
Scholars are exhilarated by the prospect of tapping into the vast troves of personal data collected by Facebook, Google, Amazon and a host of start-ups, which they say could transform social science research. Once forced to conduct painstaking personal interviews with subjects, scientists can now sit at a screen and instantly play with the digital experiences of millions of Internet users. It’s the frontier of social science — experiments on people who may never even know they are subjects of study, let alone explicitly consent. “This is a new era,” said Jeffrey T. Hancock, a Cornell University professor of communication and information science. “I liken it a little bit to when chemistry got the microscope.”
Greenhouse gas fear over increased levels of meat eating
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-29007758
Research from Cambridge and Aberdeen universities estimates greenhouse gases from food production will go up 80% if meat and dairy consumption continues to rise at its current rate. That will make it harder to meet global targets on limiting emissions. The study urges eating two portions of red meat and seven of poultry per week. However that call comes as the world’s cities are seeing a boom in burger restaurants. The research highlights that more and more people from around the world are adopting American-style diets, leading to a sizeable increase in meat and dairy consumption.
A Call for a Low-Carb Diet That Embraces Fat
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/02/health/low-carb-vs-low-fat-diet.html
People who avoid carbohydrates and eat more fat, even saturated fat, lose more body fat and have fewer cardiovascular risks than people who follow the low-fat diet that health authorities have favored for decades, a major new study shows.
Saving America’s honeybees
http://www.bbc.com/news/business-28983709
In the past 60 years the number of honeybee colonies has fallen from six million beehives in 1947, to just 2.5 million today, according to the White House. in June, President Obama launched a taskforce to protect the honeybee. The White House is investing $50m into research and action to stem the decline, improve habitats and promote better education around the issue.
Waking the Dead: Bringing Extinct Species Back to Life
http://longnow.org/revive/what-we-do/passenger-pigeon/
The Great Passenger Pigeon Comeback This is the first project to revive an extinct animal using its museum-specimen DNA. Once it succeeds, the techniques will be applicable to hundreds of other extinct species.
Google ‘discourages’ old browser use
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-29012038
For some the only way to get to the 2014 search page was to change their browser’s basic configuration to make Google think it was more up-to-date than it actually was. A Google engineer joined the discussion and explained that the change was not the result of a bug. “It’s working as intended,” said a Google staffer called “nealem”.
What Browser Am I Using?
http://whatbrowser.org/
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XRay, first step in understanding how personal data is being used on web services

New tool makes online personal data more transparent

8/18/14 Columbia Engineering researchers develop XRay, first step in understanding how personal data is being used on web services like Google, Amazon, and YouTube

New York, NY—August 18, 2014—The web can be an opaque black box: it leverages our personal information without our knowledge or control. When, for instance, a user sees an ad about depression online, she may not realize that she is seeing it because she recently sent an email about being sad. Roxana Geambasu and Augustin Chaintreau, both assistant professors of computer science at Columbia Engineering, are seeking to change that, and in doing so bring more transparency to the web. Along with their PhD student, Mathias Lecuyer, the researchers have developed XRay, a new tool that reveals which data in a web account, such as emails, searches, or viewed products, are being used to target which outputs, such as ads, recommended products, or prices. They will be presenting the prototype, which is designed to make the online use of personal data more transparent, at USENIX Security on August 20. The researchers have posted the open source system, as well as their findings, online for other researchers interested in studying how web services use personal data to leverage and extend.
“Today we have a problem: the web is not transparent. We see XRay as an important first step in exposing how websites are using your personal data,” says Geambasu, who is also a member of Columbia’s Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering’s Cybersecurity Center.
We live in a “big data” world, where staggering amounts of personal data—our locations, search histories, emails, posts, photos, and more—are constantly being collected and analyzed by Google, Amazon, Facebook, and many other web services. While harnessing big data can certainly improve our daily lives (Amazon offerings, Netflix suggestions, emergency response Tweets, etc.), these beneficial uses have also generated a big data frenzy, with web services aggressively pursuing new ways to acquire and commercialize the information.
“It’s critical, now more than ever, to reconcile our privacy needs with the exponential progress in leveraging this big data,” says Chaintreau, a member of the Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering’s New Media Center. Geambasu adds, “If we leave it unchecked, big data’s exciting potential could become a breeding ground for data abuses, privacy vulnerabilities, and unfair or deceptive business practices.”
Determined to provide checks and balances on data abuse, XRay is designed to be the first fine-grained, scalable personal data tracking system for the web. For example, one can use the XRay prototype to study why a user might be shown a specific ad in Gmail. Geambasu and Chaintreau found, for example, that a Gmail user who sees ads about various forms of spiritualism might have received them because he or she sent an email message about depression.
Developing XRay was challenging, say the researchers. “The science of understanding the use of personal web data at a fine grain—looking at individual emails, photos, posts, etc.—is largely non-existent,” Geambasu notes. “There really isn’t anything out there that can accurately pinpoint which specific input—which search query, visited site, or viewed product—or combination of inputs explains which output. It was clear that we needed to come up with a new, robust auditing tool, one that can be applied effectively to many different services.”
How it Works
“We knew from the start that our biggest challenge in achieving transparency would be scale—how do we continue to track more data while using minimum resources?” Chaintreau says. “The theoretical results were encouraging, but seemed too good to be true. So we tested XRay in actual situations, learning from experiments we ran on Gmail, Amazon, and YouTube, and refining the design multiple times. The final design surprised us: XRay succeeded in all the experiments we ran, and it matched our theoretical predictions in increasingly complex cases. That is when we finally thought that achieving web transparency at large is not a dream in a distant future but something we can start building toward now.”
The current XRay system works with Gmail, Amazon, and YouTube. However, XRay’s core functions are service-agnostic and easy to instantiate for new services, and they can track data within and across services. The key idea in XRay is to use black-box correlation of data inputs and outputs to detect data use.
To assess XRay’s practical value, the researchers created an XRay-based demo service that continuously collects and diagnoses Gmail ads related to a set of topics, including various diseases, pregnancy, race, sexual orientation, divorce, debt, etc. They created emails that included keywords closely related to one topic and then launched XRay’s Gmail ad collection and examined the targeting associations. XRay’s data is now available online to anyone interested in sensitive-topic ad targeting in Gmail.
“We’ve just started to peek into XRay’s targeting data and even at this early stage, we’ve seen a lot of interesting behaviors,” Geambasu says. “We know that we need larger-scale experience to formalize and quantify our conclusions, but we can already make several interesting observations.”
The researchers note that (1) It is definitely possible to target sensitive topics in users’ inboxes, including cancer, depression, or pregnancy. (2) For many ads, targeting was extremely obscure and non-obvious to end-users, which opens them up to abuses. (3) The researchers have already seen signs of such abuses, for instance, a number of subprime loan ads for used cars targeting debt in users’ inboxes. Examples of ads and their targeted topics can be found on the XRay website.
The tool can be used to increase user awareness about how their data is being used, as well as provide much needed tools for auditors, such as researchers, journalists, and investigators, to keep that use under scrutiny. Geambasu and Chaintreau, who recently won a Magic Grant from the Brown institute for Media Innovation to build better transparency tools, have made the XRay prototype available for auditors at http://xray.cs.columbia.edu.
“Our work calls for and promotes the best practice of voluntary transparency,” says Chaintreau, “while at the same time empowering investigators and watchdogs with a significant new tool for increased vigilance, something we need more of every day.”

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Big Data, Internet Surveillance, and 4th Amendment.
Who watches the watchers? Big Data goes unchecked Washington


Educational CyberPlayGround: Surveillance Technology in the Work Place .
networking would presumably be the domain of PRISM. How Much Big


Parents fight Big Data Collection and Surveillance
Education Surveillance and Big Data Big Data If you’re OK with


Privacy Concerns over selling K-12 Student Datainformation is a common practice.
Department has been a major proponent of big data . It has used


Educational CyberPlayGround: Knowledge Management
Crunch your way through big data on your iPad? Lucky Sort , is


Learn how to protect your privacy when you are online.
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Educational CyberPlayGround: State Associations of School Administrators Alabama ,…
Who watches the watchers? Big Data goes unchecked Washington
Educational CyberPlayGround: Future Trends in Computing.
makezine.com/ 2012 BIG DATA When scientists publish their


Federal K12 Department of Education in America FAIL.
Education Surveillance and Big Data Is your company product or


Predictive Technology – Darpa develops cognitive fingerprint.
Big Data And You: How Your ‘Likes’ Reveal Sexuality, Race, Drug

 

[CreoleTalk] Tenth Creolistics Workshop: Call for Papers

Call for papers
Tenth Creolistics Workshop: “Innovations” – with special attention to parallels between creole and sign language creation
Aarhus University, Denmark, 8-10 April 2015
http://www.creolisticsX.dk
Background of the Creolistics Workshop
The Creolistics Workshop, which has previously been held in London (UK), Amsterdam (NL), Giessen (D) and Aarhus (DK), has a long tradition for being a forum of exchange and inspiration in the creolistics community. For the tenth edition, the main focus will be on innovations, primarily in creoles and sign languages, but also in other types of languages where contact has played an important role.
Creole studies have traditionally focused on continuation and universals, discussing for instance the contributions of the lexifiers and substrates. In past decades, an important body of literature in creolistics has been produced with the goal of weighing the influences from the various contributing languages to creole formation. However, much less attention has been given to innovations, in particular lexical, semantic, syntactic and typological aspects that cannot easily be attributed to the known input languages.
Therefore, the aim of this workshop will be to shift the focus from a historical approach to creoles to a more cognitively-oriented framework whose primary goal will be to explain why certain strategies and structures are innovated and selected in the creation of new language varieties, while others are not.
As sign languages have been argued to show social and structural commonalities with creoles, special attention is given to Deaf Sign Languages.
 
Parallels between creole and sign language creation
The idea that sign languages can be considered creole languages is based on a variety of factors, and is often linked to the particular sociohistorical circumstances under which they emerged and evolved. Especially since the documentation of the genesis of Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL), where researchers pointed out the sudden development of the language going through a process reminiscent of an initial pidgin stage with subsequent creolization, sign language students have looked at creole studies for inspiration. With few exceptions, this inspiration was more or less unidirectional. The time now seems ripe to cross-fertilize creole studies with research on Sign Languages.
There are several areas of similarity between creoles and sign languages: both are created and innovated from the bottom up, that is, the first generation of (new) sign language users modify, create and unify word signs and structures, just as may have happened in the genesis of creole languages. 90% of deaf children are born in hearing families, which means that the children will be better signers than their parents – just like, at some point in history, children creole speakers were.
There are also structural similarities between signed and spoken languages, such as aspect-dominance, preverbal marking of tense-mood-aspect, the marking of existentials with a verb meaning possession and the use of a sentence-final completive marker.
Furthermore, there are sociolinguistic similarities in that both types of languages are minority languages with low prestige, often lacking recognition and whose speakers and signers themselves belong to stigmatized communities.
Finally, both creole languages and sign languages have been diffused between areas, even between continents, for instance American Sign Language has its roots in French Sign Language rather than being the result of a local creation. Similarly, West African Pidgin English and Caribbean English creoles are historically connected, and several other pidgins/creoles are known to have spawned several daughter languages (e.g. the different Melanesian Pidgin Englishes).
One goal of Creolistics X is to bring together the field of creole studies together with that of sign linguistics so as to establish possible connections between the two types of languages, centering around the theme of innovations. Specifically, the development from pidgin to creole as compared to that from home-signs to full-fledged sign language offers an interesting and potentially fruitful research venue, with possible implications for, among others, general theoretical linguistics and evolutionary linguistics.
 
Call for papers
For this workshop, we would like to invite contributions from scholars working on creoles and sign languages from a diachronic or synchronic perspective. We welcome especially papers that deal with outcomes of contact situations where innovative expansions of the grammatical system can be observed, compared to earlier stages or to the contributing languages. We define innovations here broadly so as to encompass any distinction that is found neither in the lexifier, nor in the substrate languages.
Particularly welcome are contributions which touch upon the commonalities between sign languages and creoles, so that possible underlying cognitive mechanisms common to both language types, regardless of the modality they use, can be identified. Other topics of potential interest include, but are not limited to, how innovations spread and diffuse within a community (from ontogeny to phylogeny), or studies that investigate possible links between creole language and sign language genesis.
In the traditional spirit of openness of preceding Creolistics Workshops, other topics in the area of pidgin and creole languages will also be welcome.
 
Abstracts
The length of abstracts should not exceed 500 words. Please send your anonymized abstract to creolisticsX@gmail.com – remember to provide the name(s) of the author(s) and affiliation in the mail itself, not on the abstract. The deadline for submitting your abstract is on October 1, 2014. Notification of acceptance can be expected around November 1, 2014.
 
Homepage
http://www.creolisticsX.dk
On the homepage, you will find pratical information in connection with the event, as well as a bibliography of studies linking sign languages and creoles.
 
Sign language interpretation will be available for presenters at the conference.
Local organization
Julie Bakken Jepsen
Peter Bakker
Finn Borchsenius
Aymeric Daval-Markussen
Carsten Levisen
Eeva Sippola
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NSA's automated hacking engine offers hands-free pwning of the world

NSA’s automated hacking engine offers hands-free pwning of the world
With Turbine, no humans are required to exploit phones, PCs, routers, VPNs.
by Sean Gallagher – Mar 12 2014, 3:20pm EDT
Since 2010, the National Security Agency has kept a push-button hacking system called Turbine that allows the agency to scale up the number of networks it has access to from hundreds to potentially millions. The news comes from new Edward Snowden documents published by Ryan Gallagher and Glenn Greenwald inThe Intercept today. The leaked information details how the NSA has used Turbine to ramp up its hacking capacity to “industrial scale,” plant malware that breaks the security on virtual private networks (VPNs) and digital voice communications, and collect data and subvert targeted networks on a once-unimaginable scale.
Turbine is part of Turbulence, the collection of systems that also includes the Turmoil network surveillance system that feeds the NSA’s XKeyscore surveillance database. While it is controlled from NSA and GCHQ headquarters, it is a distributed set of attack systems equipped with packaged “exploits” that take advantage of the ability the NSA and GCHQ have to insert themselves as a “man in the middle” at Internet chokepoints. Using that position of power, Turbine can automate functions of Turbulence systems to corrupt data in transit between two Internet addresses, adding malware to webpages being viewed or otherwise attacking the communications stream.
Since Turbine went online in 2010, it has allowed the NSA to scale up from managing hundreds of hacking operations each day to handling millions of them. It does so by taking people out of the loop of managing attacks, instead using software to identify, target, and attack Internet-connected devices by installing malware referred to as “implants.” According to the documents, NSA analysts can simply specify the type of information required and let the system figure out how to get to it without having to know the details of the application being attacked.
<snip>

SAFE Act

The Securing Adolescents from Exploitation-Online Act of 2007

ISPs already have a duty to notify authorities if they stumble across anything that appears to be child pornography or molestation evidence. The new bill ups the penalties for not reporting this information; ISPs now face up to $150,000 for a first violation and up to $300,000 for subsequent violations. The bill also requires ISPs to retain copies of all information filed in these reports, and to do so for 180 days in case they are needed for use as evidence in court.  Now, what does the bill not do? It explicitly tells ISPs that they do not need to “monitor any user, subscriber, or customer,” they do not need to “monitor the content of any indication,” or even “affirmatively seek facts or circumstances.” In other words, if you see it, you are legally obligated to report it, but ISPs do not need to become child porn detectives.
110th CONGRESS
1st Session
H. R. 3791
AN ACT

To modernize and expand the reporting requirements relating to child pornography, to expand cooperation in combating child pornography, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

This Act may be cited as the “Securing Adolescents From Exploitation-Online Act of 2007” or the “SAFE Act of 2007”.

SEC. 2. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SERVICE PROVIDERS AND REMOTE COMPUTING SERVICE PROVIDERS.

(a) In General.—Chapter 110 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after section 2258 the following:

“SEC. 2258A. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SERVICE PROVIDERS AND REMOTE COMPUTING SERVICE PROVIDERS.

“(a) Duty To Report.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—Whoever, while engaged in providing an electronic communication service or a remote computing service to the public through a facility or means of interstate or foreign commerce, obtains actual knowledge of any facts or circumstances described in paragraph (2) shall, as soon as reasonably possible—

“(A) complete and maintain with current information a registration with the CyberTipline of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, or any successor to the CyberTipline operated by such center, by providing the mailing address, telephone number, facsimile number, electronic mail address of, and individual point of contact for, such electronic communication service provider or remote computing service provider; and

“(B) make a report of such facts or circumstances to the CyberTipline, or any successor to the CyberTipline operated by such center.

“(2) FACTS OR CIRCUMSTANCES.—The facts or circumstances described in this paragraph are any facts or circumstances that appear to indicate a violation of—

“(A) section 2251, 2251A, 2252, 2252A, 2252B, or 2260 that involves child pornography; or

“(B) section 1466A.

“(b) Contents Of Report.—To the extent available to an electronic communication service provider or a remote computing service provider, each report under subsection (a)(1) shall include the following information:

“(1) INFORMATION ABOUT THE INVOLVED INDIVIDUAL.—Information relating to the Internet identity of any individual who appears to have violated a Federal law in the manner described in subsection (a)(2), which shall, to the extent reasonably practicable, include the electronic mail address, website address, uniform resource locator, or any other identifying information, including self-reported identifying information.

“(2) HISTORICAL REFERENCE.—Information relating to when any apparent child pornography was uploaded, transmitted, reported to, or discovered by the electronic communication service provider or remote computing service provider, as the case may be, including a date and time stamp and time zone.

“(3) GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION INFORMATION.—Information relating to the geographic location of the involved individual, hosting website, or uniform resource locator, which shall include the Internet Protocol Address or verified billing address, or, if not reasonably available, at least one form of geographic identifying information, including area code or zip code. The information shall also include any self-reported geographic information.

“(4) IMAGES OF APPARENT CHILD PORNOGRAPHY.—Any image of any apparent child pornography relating to the incident such report is regarding.

“(5) COMMINGLED IMAGES.—Any images, data, or other digital files (collectively referred to as ‘digital files’) which are commingled or interspersed among the images of apparent child pornography. If it would impose an undue hardship to provide these commingled digital files as part of the report, because of the volume of the digital files or for other reasons, the reporting company shall, in lieu of providing those digital files, inform the CyberTipline of the existence of such digital files, and retain those digital files as if they were part of the report as required pursuant to subsection (h).

“(c) Forwarding Of Report To Law Enforcement.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children shall forward each report made under subsection (a)(1) to any appropriate law enforcement agency designated by the Attorney General under subsection (d)(2).

“(2) STATE AND LOCAL LAW ENFORCEMENT.—The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children may forward any report made under subsection (a)(1) to an appropriate official of a State or political subdivision of a State for the purpose of enforcing State criminal law.

“(3) FOREIGN LAW ENFORCEMENT.—The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children may forward any report made under subsection (a)(1) to any appropriate foreign law enforcement agency designated by the Attorney General under subsection (d)(3), subject to the conditions established by the Attorney General under subsection (d)(3).

“(d) Attorney General Responsibilities.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—The Attorney General shall enforce this section.

“(2) DESIGNATION OF FEDERAL AGENCIES.—The Attorney General shall designate promptly the Federal law enforcement agency or agencies to which a report shall be forwarded under subsection (c)(1).

“(3) DESIGNATION OF FOREIGN AGENCIES.—The Attorney General shall promptly—

“(A) designate the foreign law enforcement agencies to which a report may be forwarded under subsection (c)(3);

“(B) establish the conditions under which such a report may be forwarded to such agencies; and

“(C) develop a process for foreign law enforcement agencies to request assistance from Federal law enforcement agencies in obtaining evidence related to a report referred under subsection (c)(3).

“(e) Failure To Report.—An electronic communication service provider or remote computing service provider that knowingly and willfully fails to make a report required under subsection (a)(1) shall be fined—

“(1) in the case of an initial knowing and willful failure to make a report, not more than $150,000; and

“(2) in the case of any second or subsequent knowing and willful failure to make a report, not more than $300,000.

“(f) Protection Of Privacy.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to require an electronic communication service provider or a remote computing service provider to—

“(1) monitor any user, subscriber, or customer of that provider;

“(2) monitor the content of any communication of any person described in paragraph (1); or

“(3) affirmatively seek facts or circumstances described in subsection (a)(2).

“(g) Conditions Of Disclosure Information Contained Within Report.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), a law enforcement agency that receives a report under subsection (c) shall not disclose any information contained in that report.

“(2) PERMITTED DISCLOSURES.—A law enforcement agency may disclose information in a report received under subsection (c)—

“(A) to an attorney for the government for use in the performance of the official duties of that attorney;

“(B) to such officers and employees of that law enforcement agency, as may be necessary in the performance of their investigative and recordkeeping functions;

“(C) to such other government personnel (including personnel of a State or subdivision of a State) as are determined to be necessary by an attorney for the government to assist the attorney in the performance of the official duties of the attorney in enforcing Federal criminal law;

“(D) if the report discloses a violation of State criminal law, to an appropriate official of a State or subdivision of a State for the purpose of enforcing such State law;

“(E) to a defendant in a criminal case or the attorney for that defendant, to the extent the information relates to a criminal charge pending against that defendant;

“(F) to an electronic communication service provider or remote computing provider if necessary to facilitate response to legal process issued in connection to that report. The electronic communication service provider or remote computing service provider shall be prohibited from disclosing the contents of that report to any person, except as necessary to respond to the legal process; and

“(G) as ordered by a court upon a showing of good cause and pursuant to any protective orders or other conditions that the court may impose.

“(h) Evidence Preservation.—

“(1) IN GENERAL.—For the purposes of this section, the notification to an electronic communication service provider or a remote computing service provider by the CyberTipline of receipt of a report under subsection (a)(1) shall be treated as notice to preserve, as if such notice was made pursuant to section 2703(f).

“(2) PRESERVATION OF REPORT.—Pursuant to subsection (h)(1), an electronic communication service provider or a remote computing service shall preserve the contents of the report provided pursuant to subsection (b) as well as the information in subsection (c)(2) of section 2703 pertaining to the involved individual for not less than 180 days after such notification by the CyberTipline.

“(3) AUTHORITIES AND DUTIES NOT AFFECTED.—Nothing in this section shall be construed as replacing, amending, or otherwise interfering with the authorities and duties under section 2703.

“SEC. 2258B. LIMITED LIABILITY FOR ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SERVICE PROVIDERS, REMOTE COMPUTING SERVICE PROVIDERS, OR DOMAIN NAME REGISTRAR.

“(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), a civil claim or criminal charge against an electronic communication service provider, a remote computing service provider, or domain name registrar, including any director, officer, employee, or agent of such electronic communication service provider, remote computing service provider, or domain name registrar arising from the performance of the reporting responsibilities of such electronic communication service provider, remote computing service provider, or domain name registrar under this section, section 2258A, or section 2258C may not be brought in any Federal or State court.

“(b) Intentional, Reckless, Or Other Misconduct.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to a claim if the electronic communication service provider, remote computing service provider, or domain name registrar, or a director, officer, employee, or agent of that electronic communication service provider, remote computing service provider, or domain name registrar—

“(1) engaged in intentional misconduct; or

“(2) acted, or failed to act—

“(A) with actual malice;

“(B) with reckless disregard to a substantial risk of causing injury without legal justification; or

“(C) for a purpose unrelated to the performance of any responsibility or function under this section, section 2258A, or section 2258C.

“(c) Ordinary Business Activities.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to an act or omission relating to an ordinary business activity of an electronic communication service provider, a remote computing service provider, or domain name registrar, including general administration or operations, the use of motor vehicles, or personnel management.

“(d) Minimizing Access.—An electronic communication service provider, a remote computing service provider, and domain name registrar shall—

“(1) minimize the number of employees that are provided access to any image provided under section 2258A or 2258C; and

“(2) ensure that any such image is permanently destroyed, upon notification from a law enforcement agency.

“SEC. 2258C. USE OF IMAGES FROM THE CYBERTIPLINE TO COMBAT CHILD PORNOGRAPHY.

“(a) In General.—The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children is authorized to provide elements relating to any image reported to its CyberTipline to an electronic communication service provider or a remote computing service provider for the sole and exclusive purpose of permitting that electronic communication service provider or remote computing service provider to stop the further transmission of images. Such elements may include unique identifiers associated with a specific image, Internet location of images, and other technological elements that can be used to identify and stop the transmission of child pornography.

“(b) Use By Electronic Communication Service Providers And Remote Computing Service Providers.—Any electronic communication service provider or remote computing service provider that receives elements relating to an image from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children under this section may use such information only for the purposes described in this section, provided that such use shall not relieve that electronic communication service provider or remote computing service provider from its reporting obligations under section 2258A.

“SEC. 2258D. LIMITED LIABILITY FOR THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING AND EXPLOITED CHILDREN.

“(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), a civil claim or criminal charge against the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, including any director, officer, employee, or agent of such center, arising from the performance of the CyberTipline responsibilities or functions of such center, as described in this section, section 2258A or 2258C of this title, or section 404 of the Missing Children’s Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5773), or from the effort of such center to identify child victims may not be brought in any Federal or State court.

“(b) Intentional, Reckless, Or Other Misconduct.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to a claim or charge if the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, or a director, officer, employee, or agent of such center—

“(1) engaged in intentional misconduct; or

“(2) acted, or failed to act—

“(A) with actual malice;

“(B) with reckless disregard to a substantial risk of causing injury without legal justification; or

“(C) for a purpose unrelated to the performance of any responsibility or function under this section, section 2258A or 2258C of this title, or section 404 of the Missing Children’s Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5773).

“(c) Ordinary Business Activities.—Subsection (a) shall not apply to an act or omission relating to an ordinary business activity, including general administration or operations, the use of motor vehicles, or personnel management.

“(d) Minimizing Access.—The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children shall—

“(1) minimize the number of employees that are provided access to any image provided under section 2258A; and

“(2) ensure that any such image is permanently destroyed upon notification from a law enforcement agency.

“SEC. 2258E. DEFINITIONS.

“In sections 2258A through 2258D—

“(1) the terms ‘attorney for the government’ and ‘State’ have the meanings given those terms in rule 1 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure;

“(2) the term ‘electronic communication service’ has the meaning given that term in section 2510;

“(3) the term ‘electronic mail address’ has the meaning given that term in section 3 of the CAN–SPAM Act of 2003 (15 U.S.C. 7702);

“(4) the term ‘Internet’ has the meaning given that term in section 1101 of the Internet Tax Freedom Act (47 U.S.C. 151 note);

“(5) the term ‘remote computing service’ has the meaning given that term in section 2711; and

“(6) the term ‘website’ means any collection of material placed in a computer server-based file archive so that it is publicly accessible, over the Internet, using hypertext transfer protocol or any successor protocol.”.

(b) Conforming Amendments.—

(1) REPEAL OF SUPERCEDED PROVISION.—Section 227 of the Crime Control Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13032) is repealed.

(2) TABLE OF SECTIONS.—The table of sections for chapter 110 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting after the item relating to section 2258 the following:

“2258A. Reporting requirements of electronic communication service providers and remote computing service providers.
“2258B. Limited liability for electronic communication service providers and remote computing service providers.
“2258C. Use of images from the CyberTipline to combat child pornography.
“2258D. Limited liability for the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.
“2258E. Definitions.”.

Passed the House of Representatives December 5, 2007.
Attest:

EDUCATIONUK-L MAILING LIST

 

EDUCATIONUK-L MAILING LIST
http://www.britishcouncil.org/eumd-educationuk-l.htm

EducationUK-L is an e-mail list that is used to keep UK education providers informed about the following topics:

Education UK Partnership activities and opportunities;
Prime Minister’s Initiative for International Education (PMI2) activities;
general education marketing opportunities.

Information is sent out on the same day as it is received and delivered via e-mail in the form of a daily digest containing all the messages received for posting that day. The content is quality controlled and edited to ensure that it is relevant to subscribers. The service also provides a searchable archive of all postings to the list, so subscribers can refer back to messages if necessary.

Back-to-School Tips for Parents & Teachers

FIRST DAY Back from Summer Vacation Welcome Back

K12 Back to School Ideas for Parents and Teachers this September

NEW TEACHER SURVIVAL KIT

NEW TEACHER TRAINING: CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND DISCIPLINE

THE #1 DIFFERENCE IN CHILDREN’S SCHOLASTIC SUCCESS
Research done by US military schools has shown success depends on parental involvement. You can model their success by simply inviting your parents into your school and ask them to be active in the classroom. Make parents feel welcomed anytime they can come, and call their employers asking them to give parents time to come. Parents who are supported by the work place and encouraged to actively participate in the classroom will improve test scores more than any other single activity. Study after study shows that students with involved parents make better grades, enroll in higher-level programs, attend school regularly, have better social skills and go on to college. But involvement by parents often turns on whether they are encouraged, and few developments are more encouraging than the Community Report Card for Parents. The report card is not about making judgments or finding fault. It’s all about giving parents the facts and encouraging them to find out how they can be a positive force for quality schools.