In arctic northern Russia, industrialized resource extraction and climate change are presenting a double threat to the Nenets, an indigenous people native to Siberia. The Nenets depend heavily on their reindeer herds, using them for food, clothing, tools, transportation, and more as they migrate more than a thousand kilometers across the tundra every year. Nenets herders move seasonally with their reindeer, traveling along ancient migration routes. The covers of the Nenets’ conical-shaped tents, called choom or mya, are fabricated from reindeer hide and mounted on heavy poles. At night, the sleds are arranged in half-circles around the choom. The Yamal Peninsula: a stretch of peatland that extends from northern Siberia into the Kara Sea, far above the Arctic Circle. To the east lie the shallow waters of the Gulf of Ob; to the west, the Baydaratskaya Bay, which is ice-covered for most of the year. Yamal in the language of the indigenous Nenets means “the end of the world.” Under Stalin, Nenets communities were split into groups known as brigades, and forced to live on collective farms and villages called kolkhozy. Each brigade was obliged to pay reindeer meat as taxes. Children were separated from their families and sent to government-run boarding schools, where they were forbidden to speak their own language.
The partials of a sound wave made by the human voice can be selectively amplified by changing the shape of the resonant cavities of the mouth, larynx and pharynx. See and listen to Pine Top Perkins shows this using a harmonica.
Female Mongolian Throat Singer / Inuit Traditional Throat singers from Arviat, Nunavut CANADA.
Tumivut – Inuit Throat Singing – The Competiton Song at Aboriginal Day 2010 at The Forks in Winnipeg Manitoba Canada
Eskomo hunters 1949
Johanna Nichols, a Professor of Slavic languages and literature at the University of California at Berkeley. She says that new linguistic evidence from indigenous languages throughout the New World strongly suggest that humans have been in the Americas since as early as 40,000 BCE. She says that it is only along the west Coast that languages appear to have come from immigrants who arrived after the ice age, 14,000 years ago.
The name “Alaska” is most likely derived from the Aleut word Alyaeska, meaning greater land as opposed to the Aleut word Aleutia, meaning lesser land.
The Sound of Silence
Sonidos del Silencio Panflute and quenacho – Wuauquikuna