Have a Great American Thanksgiving and here's your Folkie Music Menu

Each year American Routes americanroutes.org celebrates Thanksgiving weekend with words and music from the National Heritage Fellows Concert in Washington DC. Since 1982 the National Endowment for the Arts has presented the fellowships. It’s America’s highest award in Folk & Traditional Arts. We’ll hear a mix of this year’s fellows live from the stage as well as great recordings of those from years gone by: The Holmes Brothers, Doc Watson, Tremé Brass Band, Michael Doucet with Beausoleil, Boozoo Chavis, Flaco Jimenez, Mavis Staples, Del McCoury, John Cephas & Phil Wiggins, Andy Statman and many more. Blues and jazz, Cajun and zydeco, Téjano and klezmer, bluegrass and gospel as well as Native American voices, make a cornucopia of sounds and stories for the holiday!
All from American Routes, the weekly public radio program devoted to the music and culture of New Orleans, the Gulf South and beyond. American Routes is produced with Tulane University’s School of Liberal Arts and distributed nationally by Public Radio Exchange.
This Week’s Playlist:
Hour 1
The Maryland and Delaware Singing and Praying Bands live performance live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“Black Cat on the Line” (Cephas) Cephas and Wiggins From Richmond to Atlanta (Bullseye Blues)
“Big Black Train” (Johnson/Sherry) The Earls of Leicester The Earls of Leicester (Rounder)
“House of the Rising Sun” (Ray/Holmes) Doc & Richard Watson Third Generation Blues (Sugar Hill)
Instrumental: “Fiddler’s Dream/Whistling Rufus/Ragtime Annie” (Trad.) Doc Watson Foundation: The Doc Watson Guitar Instrumental Collection 1964-1998 (Sugar Hill)
Kevin Doyle on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“Parlez-Nous A Boire (Speak to Us of Drinking)” (Trad.) Beausoleil Parlez-Nous A Boire & More (Arhoolie)
“Dog Hill” (Chavis/Simien) Boozoo Chavis Boozoo Chavis (Electra Nonesuch)
“Ay Te Dejo en San Antonio” (Jimenez) Flaco Jimenez Ay Te Dejo en San Antonio (Arhoolie)
Instrumental: “Viva Seguin” (Jimenez) Flaco Jimenez Arriba El Norte (Rounder)
“Descarga Cachao” (Lopez) Cachao Descarga Cachao (Epic)
Cowboy Donley live performance and on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“Sing On” (Trad.) The Treme Brass Band New Orleans Music! (Mardi Gras)
End Bed: “Tipitina” (Byrd) Allen Toussaint American Routes original recording
Hour 2
Rufus White live performance and on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
Yvonne Walker Keshick on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“On the King’s Highway” (Statman) Andy Statman Old Brooklyn (Shefa)
Vera Nakonechny on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
Instrumental: “One in Nine” (Statman) Andy Statman Old Brooklyn (Shefa)
Henry Arquette on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“Loggin’ Man” (McCoury) The Del McCoury Band The Cold Hard Facts (Rounder)
“John Henry” (Trad.) John Jackson Don’t Let Your Deal Go Down (Arhoolie)
Caroline Mazloomi on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
“I’ll Take You There” (Isbell) The Staple Singers The Muscle Shoals Sound (Rhino)
Instrumental: “Opus de Soul” (Thomas/Isbell) Albert King, Steve Cropper, Pops Staples Jammed Together (Stax)
The Holmes Brothers live performance and on-stage interview live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014
End Bed: “Will the Circle Be Unbroken” (Carter) 2014 NEA Heritage Fellows live recording at NEA Heritage Concert 2014

Programming the ENIAC

Programming the ENIAC

COMPUTER WONDER WOMEN AND DIGITAL DIVA’S: WOMEN AND THEIR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN COMPUTER

Photo
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Read about Kay McNulty Mauchly Antonelli

Built in 1943-45 at the Moore School of the University of Pennsylvania for the War effort by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert (no relation to Columbia University’s Wallace Eckert) but not delivered to the Army until just after the end of the war, the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) was the first general-purpose electronic digital computer. It was 150 feet wide with 20 banks of flashing lights and about 300 times faster than the Mark 1 at addition. Wallace Eckert is cited in the histories as an influence on the designers, as he was for the Mark 1. These US Army photos from the archives of the ARL Technical Library show two early programmers (Gloria Ruth Gordon [Bolotsky] and Ester Gerston) at work on the ENIAC.

PERSONAL MEMORIES

Listen to The Franklin Institute’s Margaret Ennis, who knew one of the very first programmers ever, lay to rest a popular myth about the ENIAC. starts Eckart @ 7:30 minutes (16 minutes)
ARTICLE: February 14, 1996
The ‘Worst-Case Design’That Conquered the World By ROBERT E. CALEM
ENIAC was conceived by John Mauchly, a physics professor at Ursinus College in Collegeville, Pa., in 1935

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The ENIAC was not a stored-program computer; it is “better described as a collection of electronic adding machines and other arithmetic units, which were originally controlled by a web of large electrical cables” (David Alan Grier, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Jul-Sep 2004, p.2). It was programmed by a combination of plugboard wiring (shown at the top) and three “portable function tables”, shown above (CLICK HERE  and HERE for better views). Each function table has 1200 ten-way switches, used for entering tables of numbers. Note the IBM punches on the far right — a bit hard to make out; better visible in this clearer but less atmospheric copy of the same photo. Franz Alt writes in Archaeology of Computers — Reminiscences, 1945-47, Communications of the ACM, July 1972:

One of the peculiarities that distinguished ENIAC from all later computers was the way in which instructions were set up on the machine. It was similar to the plugboards of small punched-card machines, but here we had about 40 plugboards, each several feet in size. A number of wires had to be plugged for each single instruction of a problem, thousands of them each time a problem was to begin a run; and this took several days to do and many more days to check out. When that was finally accomplished, we would run the problem as long as possible, i.e. as long as we had input data, before changing over to another problem. Typically, changeovers occurred only once every few weeks.


Image: [103]: ENIAC programming chart representing the wiring to set up an exterior ballistics equation; CLICK to enlarge.
Later, ENIAC’s plugboards were permanently “microprogrammed” with a repertoire of 50-100 commonly used instructions that could be referenced from a “user program” entered as a sequence of instructions into the function-table switches. [40]
Herb Grosch says of this page [10 May 2003]:
I was roaming around the links and sublinks in the ENIAC story, and note with much interest that there were three or four castered twiddle boards [portable function tables A, B, and C], where I had always assumed only one.I note the almost complete absence of Col.[then Major] Simon, and of Dick Clippinger, who should share with von Neumann the credit for moving from plugging to twiddling for program insertion.
I was pleased to see short reference to the IBM I/O units, which show in your and other copies of the most famous photo. I wonder if John McPherson knows how they were sold/rented/given to the Moore School — never thought to ask him at the time. Unusual.
Bashe [4] says, “When the Army requested special card reading and punching units for an undisclosed project underway at the University of Pennsylvania, [IBM Chief Engineer James W.] Bryce and his staff coordinated IBM’s response… In 1946, the instrument produced by the project was revealed as ENIAC…”
Not on your page, but in the Richie story and other Aberdeeneries there should have [been made] mention of the astronomer who taught them how to calculate trajectories by hand: Forest Ray Moulton, circa 1920 [my p.89].
That prolly wasn’t intentional, but the elision of all references to the big punched card shop Cunningham ran, and to the two relay machines IBM built, certainly was. Those are what actually did firing tables, after desk calculators were overwhelmed and until the Bell machine arrived, and until ENIAC was moved in and later freed up.
Now, about the “I’m dubious …” above. I don’t think Wallace Eckert had any influence whatsoever on the designers of the ENIAC or the ASCC. Certainly in the hundreds and hundreds of hours he and I talked about those two machines, he never mentioned such, nor did Frank Hamilton, who was Number Two on the ASCC, ever hint at the latter.
A 1938 meeting between ASCC’s Howard Aiken and Wallace Eckert is well known [9]. Gutzwiller [90] says that Presper Eckert (among other well-known pioneers of computing including Aiken and Vannevar Bush) got his first inspiration from Wallace Eckert’s 1940 “orange book”. I have not been able to pin down any evidence of direct contact between the two Eckerts. Since ENIAC was a war project (as was the Aberdeen Relay Calculator, with which Eckert was also ostensibly involved) it would not be surprising that records are not available.


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Arther Burks and unknown programmer, 1946.
Jean Jennings Bartik – Video was one of the original ENIAC programmers and a syster, was made a fellow of the Computer History Museum on 10/21/08 (her co-inductees were Bob Metcalfe, inventor of the ethernet, and Linus Torvalds, creator of Linux. Jean told stories about how she left a safe life in rural Missouri for the adventure of working for Aberdeen Proving Grounds as a “computer” (a woman who computes ballistic trajectories), and then was chosen to be one of the 6 women who were to program the first electro-mechanical computer.
Born on a farm in Missouri, the sixth of seven children, Jean Jennings Bartik always went in search of adventure. Bartik majored in mathematics at Northwest Missouri State Teachers College (now Northwest Missouri State University). During her college years, WWII broke out, and in 1945, at age 20, Bartik answered the government’s call for women math majors to join a project in Philadelphia calculating ballistics firing tables for the new guns developed for the war effort. A new employee of the Army’s Ballistics Research Labs, she joined over 80 women calculating ballistics trajectories (differential calculus equations) by hand – her title: “Computer.”Later in 1945, the Army circulated a call for “computers” for a new job with a secret machine. Bartik jumped at the chance and was hired as one of the original six programmers of ENIAC, the first all-electronic, programmable computer. She joined Frances “Betty” Snyder Holberton, Kathleen McNulty Mauchly Antonelli, Marlyn Wescoff Meltzer, Ruth Lichterman Teitelbaum and Frances Bilas Spence in this unknown journey.
With ENIAC’s 40 panels still under construction, and its 18,000 vacuum tube technology uncertain, the engineers had no time for programming manuals or classes. Bartik and the other women taught themselves ENIAC’s operation from its logical and electrical block diagrams, and then figured out how to program it. They created their own flow charts, programming sheets, wrote the program and placed it on the ENIAC using a challenging physical interface, which had hundreds of wires and 3,000 switches. It was an unforgettable, wonderful experience.
On February 15, 1946, the Army revealed the existence of ENIAC to the public. In a special ceremony, the Army introduced ENIAC and its hardware inventors Dr. John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert. The presentation featured its trajectory ballistics program, operating at a speed thousands of time faster than any prior calculations. The ENIAC women’s program worked perfectly – and conveyed the immense calculating power of ENIAC and its ability to tackle the millennium problems that had previously taken a man 100 years to do. It calculated the trajectory of a shell that took 30 seconds to trace it. But, it took ENIAC only 20 seconds to calculate it – faster than a speeding bullet! Indeed!
The Army never introduced the ENIAC women.
No one gave them any credit or discussed their critical part in the event that day. Their faces, but not their names, became part of the beautiful press pictures of the ENIAC. For forty years, their roles and their pioneering work were forgotten and their story lost to history. The ENIAC Women’s story was discovered by Kathy Kleiman in 1985. Bartik will discuss what it means to be overlooked, despite unique and pioneering work, and what it means to be discovered again.

Girls change the world and can do anything

Educational CyberPlayGround: Websites for Girls and Young Women who want to be involved with Technology
WEBSITES FOR GIRLS AND YOUNG WOMEN
How to help girls get into technology.
Real women engineers and other role models for girls.
Changing Girls’ Attitudes About Computers

“Don’t worry your pretty little head over it.”
Special Edition
Computer Wonder Women
National Women’s History Month
GIRLS WHO CODE: GIRLS CAN DO ANYTHING – GIRLS CAN CHANGE THE WORD
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dr6b4nwo-5k

COMPUTERS VS TEACHERS The Golden Fleece: replacing teachers with computers

You don’t have to look far into the future to see the technology sector circling the schools, giving generously to elected officials, hyping the wonders of computers instead of teachers (so much cheaper, and computers never need a pension), and gently persuading legislatures to add online courses as graduation requirements. Consider the federally-funded tests for Common Core: all online, all requiring a massive investment in equipment, bandwidth and support services. The Golden Fleece: replacing teachers with computers.
 
Laura Chapman writes:
 
 
 
Latest Bamboozlers are the “on-line only” promoters of “learning,” no need for teachers.
 
In a press release dated February, 3, 2014 KnowledgeWorks and The International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) announced their shared agenda for federal policies that would change “our entire K-12 education system” to fit a student-centered learning environment with demonstrations of competency, free of traditional notions of schools, teachers, and student learning.
 
The policy report addressed to federal officials calls for the status quo on requiring students to meet college-and career-ready standards, but these standards would be aligned with specific competencies mapped into the idea of optimum trajectories for learning that will lead to graduation. Individual students would be tracked on the “pace” of their mastery through the use of on-line and “real-time” data. The data for each student is supposed to inform the instruction, supports, and interventions needed by each student in order to graduate.
 
This vision requires competency-based interpretations of the college-and career-ready standards and measures of those competencies. It requires a recommendation system (data-driven guide) for prioritizing required learning and ensuring continuous improvement in learning until graduation.
 
The vision calls for federal funding to states and districts for developing “personalized learning pathways” (PLPs) for students along with the infrastructure needed to produce real-time data for just-in-time recommendations for the interventions and supports needed to move students to college and career readiness.
 
The system in intended to build reports on the progress of individual students relative to mastery, or a high level of competency, for the college and career readiness standards.
 
In addition to keeping individuals “on-pace” in demonstrating standards-aligned competencies, this entire system is envisioned as offering “useful information for accountability, better teaching and learning, and measures of quality in education.”
 
In effect, programmed instruction is the solution for securing student compliance with the Common Core State Standards, assuring their entry into college and a career, with “instructional designers and programmers” the surrogates for teachers. Teachers are not needed because the out-of-sight designers and programmers build the recommendation systems for needed “interventions,” also known as “playlists.”
 
This is a souped-up version of vintage 1950s programmed instruction amplified in scope and detail by technology–on-line playlists and monitors of PLPs–personal learning plans–available anytime.
 
In fact, students get one-size-fits education, at the rate they can manage. The rate learning is optimized by computers programmed to lead students to and from the needed playlists of activities (e.g., subroutines that function as reviews, simple re-teaching, new warm-ups for the main learning event or subsets of methods for presenting the same concept). The student does what the computer says and the computer decides if and when mastery or some other criterion for competence has been achieved.
 
The selling framework is for “personalized, competency-based student-centered learning in a de-institutionalized environment.
 
Out of view are scenarios where all education is offered by “learning agents” who broker educational services offered by a mix of for-profit and non-profit providers. Token public schools remain in the mix, but are radically reduced in number and the loss becomes a self-fulling prophesy justifying radical cuts in state support. Profit seekers, together with volunteers and “20-year commitments from foundations” provide for “students in need. This is one of several scenarios from KnowledgWorks
The quest for federal funds is found here athttp://knowledgeworks.org/building-capacity-systems-change-federal-policy-framework-competency-education#sthash.Nr0OpfWq.dpuf
 
See more at the CompetencyWorks website http://bit.ly/cwk12fedpolicy

China is holding the First Internet Conference

Community Statement Presented at Wuzhen Summit
• Nov 20, 2014 5:22 PM PST
By James Seng
China is holding the First Internet Conference in the rivertown of Wuzhen, calling for global Internet interconnectivity and shared governance by all. Founders of China’s top three Internet companies Alibaba, Tencent and Baidu as well as executives from global giants including Apple, Amazon, Google and Facebook all joined the gala.
Chinese President Xi Jinping sent a congratulatory note to the ceremony, hoping countries can jointly build a cyberspace of peace, security, openness and cooperation and an international Internet governance system of multilateralism, democracy and transparency.
Lu Wei, Minister of the Cyberspace Administration of China, hoped the attendees would make plans for Internet interconnectivity and shared governance as well as promote consensus and to make a historical contribution for the Internet.
Many of the global Internet community have been invited to the event. Some of us are here but many are not able to attend due to the short notice. On behalf of the attached signatories, I have presented the following statement at the Wuzhen Summit.
* * *
2014 marks the 20th year anniversary of the era of Internet in China. Today, China has more than 600 million Internet users, accounting for nearly a quarter of the world’s total Internet users. There are four million websites in China and e-commerce annual turnover is 1.6 trillion US dollars. Three of the world’s ten largest Internet companies by market value are based in China.
To quote Minister Lu Wei’s keynote speech at the ICANN opening ceremony in London in June 2014, “The Internet is profoundly changing people’s live, promoting social progress, leading the development of the country, creating the world’s future.”
We, the undersigned, sincerely invite the leaders of the Chinese Internet Community to recognize the following generally accepted Internet principles as a base upon which to build for the Internet in China:
• To preserve Internet as an innovation environment based on open and distributed architecture;
• To develop the Internet as an unified and unfragmented space based on end-to-end open Internet and deployment of IPv6;
• To promote open standards made by rough consensus of the global technical community;
• To uphold the security, stability and resilience of the Internet through strong cooperation among different stakeholders;
• To support future Internet governance building upon multi-stakeholder processes ensuring meaningful and accountable participation.
As Internet availability and use in China expands, not only will China benefit internally, it is poised to be a significant contributor to the Global Internet Community.We look forward both to that occurring and to contributing to it.
Sincerely,
The undersigned representing themselves only (in alphabetical order)
Adam Peake, Center for Global Communications, International University of Japan
Akinbo, Adebunmi Adeola, Nigeria Internet Registration Association
Alan Levin, Internet Society of South Africa
Anne-Marie Eklund Löwinder, CISO, .SE
Barry Shein, TheWorld
Carlton Samuels, ICT4D Jamaica
Christian de Larrinaga
Christopher Wilkinson 秦基辅
Prof. David J. Farber, Carnegie Mellon University
Desiree Miloshevic
Dewayne Hendricks, Dandin Group
Eric Burger 柏尔立
Eric Brunner-William, CORE
Esaki Hiroshi, WIDE Project
Izumi Aizu
Prof. Janna Anderson, Elon University
James Seng, 21Vianet Group, Inc
Jean-Jacques Subrenat
Prof. Kilnam Chon, KAIST
Marco Davids, SIDN
Michael Roberts, The Darwin Group, Inc., former ICANN CEO
Niall O’Reilly
Nick Ashton-Hart, Internet & Digital Ecosystem Alliance (IDEA)
Patrik Fältström, Head of Research and Development, Netnod
Paul Twomey, Argo Pacific Pty Ltd, former ICANN CEO
Paul Vixie, Farsight Security, Inc
Pindar Wong 黃平达
Rod Beckstrom, former ICANN CEO
Rajnesh Singh
Salanieta T. Tamanikaiwaimaro
Prof. Shigeki Goto, Waseda University
Prof. Suguru Yamaguchi, Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Timothy McGinnis
Tony Hain, Hain Global Consulting, Inc, former IAB
Vint Cerf, VP and Chief Internet Evangelist, Google, Internet Pioneer
Wolf-Ulrich Knoben
Yong-eum Lee
Yukio Okada
The undersigned representing the organization (in alphabetical order)
Pasifika Nexus
The South Pacific Computer Society
By James Seng, Vice President. Visit the blog maintained by James Seng here.
http://www.circleid.com/posts/20141120_community_statement_presented_at_wuzhen_summit/